In type 2 diabetes (adult onset diabetes), the pancreas makes insulin, but it either doesn't produce enough, or the insulin does not work properly. Nine out of 10 people with diabetes have type 2. This type occurs most often in people who are over 40 years old but can occur even in childhood if there are risk factors present. Type 2 diabetes may sometimes be controlled with a combination of diet, weight management and exercise. However, treatment also may include oral glucose-lowering medications (taken by mouth) or insulin injections (shots).


Triglycerides are a common form of fat that we digest. Triglycerides are the main ingredient in animal fats and vegetable oils. Elevated levels of triglycerides are a risk factor for heart disease, heart attack, stroke, fatty liver disease, and pancreatitis. Elevated levels of triglycerides are also associated with diseases like diabetes, kidney disease, and medications (for example, diuretics, birth control pills, and beta blockers). Dietary changes, and medication if necessary can help lower triglyceride blood levels. https://i.ytimg.com/vi/HfSlhc6-kes/hqdefault.jpg?sqp
Although many processes are involved in this, your thyroid is one of them. The thyroid is a small gland at the front of the neck that releases hormones that control your metabolic rate and the functions of nearly every cell in the body. Going low calorie is a great way to make you feel cold, tired, constipated and frumpy because your brain uses your thyroid to slow everything down!
Cataracts and glaucoma are also more common among diabetics. It is also important to note that since the lens of the eye lets water through, if blood sugar concentrations vary a lot, the lens of the eye will shrink and swell with fluid accordingly. As a result, blurry vision is very common in poorly controlled diabetes. Patients are usually discouraged from getting a new eyeglass prescription until their blood sugar is controlled. This allows for a more accurate assessment of what kind of glasses prescription is required.

^ Jump up to: a b c d e National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents (August 2004). "The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents". Pediatrics. 114 (2 Suppl 4th Report): 555–76. doi:10.1542/peds.114.2.S2.555. PMID 15286277.
Choose whole grains such as brown rice and whole-wheat bread instead of white rice and white bread. Whole-grain foods are rich in nutrients compared with more processed foods. Whole grains are higher in fiber, so the body absorbs them more slowly. They do not cause a rapid spike in insulin, which can trigger hunger and cravings. The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines from the USDA recommend that at least half of your grains be whole-grains.
"Reducing your waist circumference could have more of an impact on preventing and managing disease than medication,” says Erin Palinski-Wade, RD, CDE, author of Belly Fat Diet for Dummies. Carrying weight around your middle, Palinski-Wade adds, “is an indication of excess visceral fat, a key risk factor for the development of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and even certain cancers.” Focus on reducing waist size even more than the numbers on the scale, she advises.
[Guideline] Skyler JS, Bergenstal R, Bonow RO, et al. Intensive glycemic control and the prevention of cardiovascular events: implications of the ACCORD, ADVANCE, and VA Diabetes Trials: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association and a Scientific Statement of the American College of Cardiology Foundation and the American Heart Association. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009 Jan 20. 53(3):298-304. [Medline].

David G Harrison, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association, American Physiological Society, American Society for Clinical Investigation, Association of American Physicians, Central Society for Clinical and Translational Research, American Federation for Clinical Research, Society for Vascular Medicine


When you have diabetes, it’s important to avoid eating many packaged, processed snacks such as cookies, chips, cake, granola bars, and the like, in lieu of fresh, whole foods, like fiber-rich fruits, veggies, and whole grains. (27) Eating foods high in fiber can help keep blood sugar levels steady and fill you up, potentially promoting weight loss and improving insulin sensitivity. (28)
The 1989 "St. Vincent Declaration"[117][118] was the result of international efforts to improve the care accorded to those with diabetes. Doing so is important not only in terms of quality of life and life expectancy but also economically – expenses due to diabetes have been shown to be a major drain on health – and productivity-related resources for healthcare systems and governments.
The goal of treating metabolic syndrome is to prevent the development of diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. Your doctor will first suggest lifestyle modifications such as exercising for 30 minutes most days of the week. One study showed that individuals who are physically active (30 minutes of activity at least once per week) have half the risk of developing metabolic syndrome than those who are inactive. Your doctor may also suggest eating a healthy diet to promote weight loss and normal blood cholesterol and fat levels. https://www.healthshare.com.au/storage/e2d6972eb9e9fe519fb8847f9afe0d6f.png.60x60_q85_box-0,0,446,446.png
The depth of this product really blew me away, as there are 138 pages of sample MRT workouts using all sorts of different equipment, or none at all. There are some great ideas in there for fitness professionals and fitness enthusiasts alike, and I'll certainly be implementing some of the techniques Jen describes in our programming at Cressey Performance.  It's on sale at a great introductory price this week, so be sure to check it out.

Nutrition: What is it and why is it important? Nutrition is the supply of materials that organisms and cells require to live. Humans need seven major types of nutrients to function. A nutritionist studies nutrients, how the body uses them, and the relationship between a person’s diet and their health. Here, learn more about nutrients and what a nutritionist does. Read now
The discussion of weight and weight loss has evolved dramatically over the past 10-15 years. In some ways this has been for the better, but in other ways for the worse. I am incredibly grateful that the discussion has moved beyond just the calories in, calories out model (because we all know at this point that that is crap!). This notion though, that calories are not the key point of the equation has spurred a $66.3 BILLION dollar diet industry. Whether this is diet pills, the gym, or other contraptions that promise to shake your last 10lbs off the general understanding is that people are being taken for a very expensive ride. At the same time though, more North American’s are in the over weight and obese category than ever. So what digs?
^ Jump up to: a b c d e f James, PA.; Oparil, S.; Carter, BL.; Cushman, WC.; Dennison-Himmelfarb, C.; Handler, J.; Lackland, DT.; Lefevre, ML.; et al. (Dec 2013). "2014 Evidence-Based Guideline for the Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults: Report From the Panel Members Appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8)". JAMA. 311 (5): 507–20. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.284427. PMID 24352797.
^ Roerecke, Michael; Tobe, Sheldon W.; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Bacon, Simon L.; Vafaei, Afshin; Hasan, Omer S. M.; Krishnan, Rohin J.; Raifu, Amidu O.; Rehm, Jürgen (27 June 2018). "Sex‐Specific Associations Between Alcohol Consumption and Incidence of Hypertension: A Systematic Review and Meta‐Analysis of Cohort Studies". Journal of the American Heart Association. 7 (13): e008202. doi:10.1161/JAHA.117.008202.
The primary problem in metabolic syndrome is insulin resistance. In the body's attempt to compensate for insulin resistance, extra insulin is produced, leading to elevated insulin levels. The elevated insulin levels can lead, directly or indirectly, to the characteristic metabolic abnormalities seen in these patients. Frequently, the insulin resistance will progress to overt type 2 diabetes, which further increases the risk of cardiovascular complications.
A person who weighed 180 pounds who diets down to 150 pounds burns significantly less energy than another person of the same height who also weighs 150 pounds who did not diet. Something about dieting causes an exaggerated slow down in metabolic rate that goes beyond what would be predicted based on tissue loss. And, as pointed out previously, this comes along with strong and unrelenting biological sensations to seek food. That is a recipe for compensatory weight regain.
Nutrition: What is it and why is it important? Nutrition is the supply of materials that organisms and cells require to live. Humans need seven major types of nutrients to function. A nutritionist studies nutrients, how the body uses them, and the relationship between a person’s diet and their health. Here, learn more about nutrients and what a nutritionist does. Read now
Blood pressure monitors for use at home can be bought at drug stores, department stores, and other places. Again, these monitors may not always give you a correct reading. You should always compare your machine’s reading with a reading from your doctor’s machine to make sure they are the same. Remember that any measurement above normal should prompt a visit to the doctor, who can then talk with you about the best course of action.
In the 19th and 20th centuries, before effective pharmacological treatment for hypertension became possible, three treatment modalities were used, all with numerous side-effects: strict sodium restriction (for example the rice diet[152]), sympathectomy (surgical ablation of parts of the sympathetic nervous system), and pyrogen therapy (injection of substances that caused a fever, indirectly reducing blood pressure).[152][158]
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Approximately half of individuals with hypertension have OSA, and approximately half with OSA have hypertension. Ambulatory BP monitoring normally reveals a "dip" in BP of at least 10% during sleep. However, if a patient is a "nondipper," the chances that the patient has OSA is increased. Nondipping is thought to be caused by frequent apneic/hypopneic episodes that end with arousals associated with marked spikes in BP that last for several seconds. Apneic episodes are associated with striking increases in sympathetic nerve activity and enormous elevations of BP. Individuals with sleep apnea have increased cardiovascular mortality, in part likely related to the high incidence of hypertension.
High-sensitivity C-reactive protein has been developed and used as a marker to predict coronary vascular diseases in metabolic syndrome, and it was recently used as a predictor for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (steatohepatitis) in correlation with serum markers that indicated lipid and glucose metabolism.[45] Fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis can be considered as manifestations of metabolic syndrome, indicative of abnormal energy storage as fat in ectopic distribution. Reproductive disorders (such as polycystic ovary syndrome in women of reproductive age), and erectile dysfunction or decreased total testosterone (low testosterone-binding globulin) in men can be attributed to metabolic syndrome.[46]
Sat Sharma, MD, FRCPC is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Sleep Medicine, American College of Chest Physicians, American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine, American Thoracic Society, Canadian Medical Association, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, Royal Society of Medicine, Society of Critical Care Medicine, and World Medical Association
Investigations into the pathophysiology of hypertension, both in animals and humans, have revealed that hypertension may have an immunological basis. Studies have revealed that hypertension is associated with renal infiltration of immune cells and that pharmacologic immunosuppression (such as with the drug mycophenolate mofetil) or pathologic immunosuppression (such as occurs with HIV) results in reduced blood pressure in animals and humans. Evidence suggests that T lymphocytes and T-cell derived cytokines (eg, interleukin 17, tumor necrosis factor alpha) play an important role in hypertension. [14, 15]
The Caerphilly Heart Disease Study followed 2,375 male subjects over 20 years and suggested the daily intake of a pint (~568 ml) of milk or equivalent dairy products more than halved the risk of metabolic syndrome.[51] Some subsequent studies support the authors' findings, while others dispute them.[52] A systematic review of four randomized controlled trials found that a paleolithic nutritional pattern improved three of five measurable components of the metabolic syndrome in participants with at least one of the components.[53]
The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) was a clinical study conducted by the United States National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) that was published in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1993. Test subjects all had diabetes mellitus type 1 and were randomized to a tight glycemic arm and a control arm with the standard of care at the time; people were followed for an average of seven years, and people in the treatment had dramatically lower rates of diabetic complications. It was as a landmark study at the time, and significantly changed the management of all forms of diabetes.[86][130][131]

Pulse pressure (the difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure) is frequently increased in older people with hypertension. This can mean that systolic pressure is abnormally high, but diastolic pressure may be normal or low a condition termed isolated systolic hypertension.[59] The high pulse pressure in elderly people with hypertension or isolated systolic hypertension is explained by increased arterial stiffness, which typically accompanies aging and may be exacerbated by high blood pressure.[60]


The difference is, if you’re new to metabolic training, or you need to improve work capacity before you can dive (safely and effectively) in to MRT, Break’em In Workouts are actually superior to “the real thing.” They’ll allow you to get fantastic results without overtaxing you, and are designed to progress you towards something that can continue to help you later on.
Doctors may also prescribe medications to lower blood pressure, control cholesterol or help you lose weight. Insulin sensitizers like Glucophage (Metformin) may be prescribed to help your body use insulin more effectively. It lowers blood sugar, which also seems to help lower cholesterol and triglycerides as well as decreasing appetite. The side effects of Metformin (often temporary) include nausea, stomach pain, bloating and diarrhea. A more serious side effect, lactic acidosis, can affect those with kidney or liver disease, severe heart failure or a history of alcohol abuse and is potentially, though rarely, fatal. Aspirin therapy is often given to help reduce risk of heart attack and stroke.
If your blood pressure is elevated, your doctor may request you have more readings over the course of a few days or weeks. A hypertension diagnosis is rarely given after just one reading. Your doctor needs to see evidence of a sustained problem. That’s because your environment can contribute to increased blood pressure, such as the stress you may feel by being at the doctor’s office. Also, blood pressure levels change throughout the day.
In type 2 diabetes, there also is a steady decline of beta cells that adds to the process of elevated blood sugars. Essentially, if someone is resistant to insulin, the body can, to some degree, increase production of insulin and overcome the level of resistance. After time, if production decreases and insulin cannot be released as vigorously, hyperglycemia develops.
* The average person can expect to lose 1-2 lbs. per week. Results may vary. Weight loss is influenced by exercise, food consumed and diet.* FREE 1-3 Day Shipping on Orders Over $99 from Shop.Atkins.com. ©2017 Atkins Nutritionals, Inc.Disclaimer: Nothing contained on this Site is intended to provide health care advice. Should you have any health care-related questions, please call or see your physician or other health care provider. Consult your physician or health care provider before beginning the Atkins Diet as you would any other weight loss or weight maintenance program. The weight loss phases of the Atkins Diet should not be used by persons on dialysis. Individual results may vary.
The second hormone that becomes involved when you begin to lose weight is a hormone known as leptin. Leptin is a hormone that is released from the fat cells to signal to the brain about how much fat we have in storage. To our body this is kind of like the indicator on a car telling us how much fuel we have in the tank. Leptin is also a messenger that is involved with controlling your metabolic rate AND your appetite.
As of 2015, an estimated 415 million people had diabetes worldwide,[8] with type 2 DM making up about 90% of the cases.[16][17] This represents 8.3% of the adult population,[17] with equal rates in both women and men.[18] As of 2014, trends suggested the rate would continue to rise.[19] Diabetes at least doubles a person's risk of early death.[2] From 2012 to 2015, approximately 1.5 to 5.0 million deaths each year resulted from diabetes.[8][9] The global economic cost of diabetes in 2014 was estimated to be US$612 billion.[20] In the United States, diabetes cost $245 billion in 2012.[21]

Abnormal cholesterol and triglyceride levels. If you have low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or "good," cholesterol, your risk of type 2 diabetes is higher. Triglycerides are another type of fat carried in the blood. People with high levels of triglycerides have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Your doctor can let you know what your cholesterol and triglyceride levels are.

(As a side note, one tricky thing we are coming to find with leptin is that many obese people have very high circulating levels of leptin but some how their body still doesn’t listen to the signal. They are leptin resistant. This means that your metabolism slows and your hunger gets jacked up… even though you have plenty of fat stores on your body! Talk about frustrating… but solvable!)
^ Jump up to: a b Go, AS; Bauman, M; King, SM; Fonarow, GC; Lawrence, W; Williams, KA; Sanchez, E (15 November 2013). "An Effective Approach to High Blood Pressure Control: A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association, the American College of Cardiology, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention". Hypertension. 63 (4): 878–85. doi:10.1161/HYP.0000000000000003. PMID 24243703. Archived from the original on 20 November 2013. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
These diabetes complications are related to blood vessel diseases and are generally classified into small vessel disease, such as those involving the eyes, kidneys and nerves (microvascular disease), and large vessel disease involving the heart and blood vessels (macrovascular disease). Diabetes accelerates hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis) of the larger blood vessels, leading to coronary heart disease (angina or heart attack), strokes, and pain in the lower extremities because of lack of blood supply (claudication).
Excess abdominal fat leads to excess free fatty acids in the portal vein, increasing fat accumulation in the liver. Fat also accumulates in muscle cells. Insulin resistance develops, with hyperinsulinemia. Glucose metabolism is impaired, and dyslipidemias and hypertension develop. Serum uric acid levels are typically elevated (increasing risk of gout), and a prothrombotic state (with increased levels of fibrinogen and plasminogen activator inhibitor I) and an inflammatory state develop.
Doctors, pharmacists, and other health-care professionals use abbreviations, acronyms, and other terminology for instructions and information in regard to a patient's health condition, prescription drugs they are to take, or medical procedures that have been ordered. There is no approved this list of common medical abbreviations, acronyms, and terminology used by doctors and other health- care professionals. You can use this list of medical abbreviations and acronyms written by our doctors the next time you can't understand what is on your prescription package, blood test results, or medical procedure orders. Examples include:
Fasting glucose test This test involves giving a blood sample after you have fasted for eight hours. (18) If you have a fasting blood sugar level of less than 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl), your blood sugar levels are normal. But if you have one from 100 to 125 mg/dl, you have prediabetes, and if you have 126 mg/dl on two separate occasions, you have diabetes. (17)
^ Jump up to: a b Campbell, NR; Lackland, DT; Lisheng, L; Niebylski, ML; Nilsson, PM; Zhang, XH (March 2015). "Using the Global Burden of Disease study to assist development of nation-specific fact sheets to promote prevention and control of hypertension and reduction in dietary salt: a resource from the World Hypertension League". Journal of clinical hypertension (Greenwich, Conn.). 17 (3): 165–67. doi:10.1111/jch.12479. PMID 25644474.
The goal of treating metabolic syndrome is to prevent the development of diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. Your doctor will first suggest lifestyle modifications such as exercising for 30 minutes most days of the week. One study showed that individuals who are physically active (30 minutes of activity at least once per week) have half the risk of developing metabolic syndrome than those who are inactive. Your doctor may also suggest eating a healthy diet to promote weight loss and normal blood cholesterol and fat levels.
Menopause is the time in a woman's life when menstrual periods permanently stop, also called the "change of life." Menopause symptoms include hot flashes, night sweats, irregular vaginal bleeding, vaginal dryness, painful intercourse, urinary incontinence, weight gain, and emotional symptoms such as mood swings. Treatment of menopausal symptoms varies, and should be discussed with your physician.
Insulin is released into the blood by beta cells (β-cells), found in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, in response to rising levels of blood glucose, typically after eating. Insulin is used by about two-thirds of the body's cells to absorb glucose from the blood for use as fuel, for conversion to other needed molecules, or for storage. Lower glucose levels result in decreased insulin release from the beta cells and in the breakdown of glycogen to glucose. This process is mainly controlled by the hormone glucagon, which acts in the opposite manner to insulin.[61]
In most people with established essential hypertension, increased resistance to blood flow (total peripheral resistance) accounts for the high pressure while cardiac output remains normal.[52] There is evidence that some younger people with prehypertension or 'borderline hypertension' have high cardiac output, an elevated heart rate and normal peripheral resistance, termed hyperkinetic borderline hypertension.[53] These individuals develop the typical features of established essential hypertension in later life as their cardiac output falls and peripheral resistance rises with age.[53] Whether this pattern is typical of all people who ultimately develop hypertension is disputed.[54] The increased peripheral resistance in established hypertension is mainly attributable to structural narrowing of small arteries and arterioles,[55] although a reduction in the number or density of capillaries may also contribute.[56]
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