Especially severe cases of hypertension, or hypertensive crises, are defined as a BP of more than 180/120 mm Hg and may be further categorized as hypertensive emergencies or urgencies. Hypertensive emergencies are characterized by evidence of impending or progressive target organ dysfunction, whereas hypertensive urgencies are those situations without progressive target organ dysfunction. [2]
Although the first formal definition of metabolic syndrome entered medical textbooks not so long ago (1998), it is as widespread as pimples and the common cold . According to the American Heart Association, 47 million Americans have it. That's almost a staggering one out of every six people. The syndrome runs in families and is more common among African-Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and Native Americans. The risks of developing metabolic syndrome increases as you age. https://www.healthshare.com.au/storage/avatars/34553.png.60x60_q85_box-0,0,256,256.png
People who have metabolic syndrome or are at risk for it may need to take medicine as treatment. This is especially true if diet and other lifestyle changes have not made a difference. Your doctor may prescribe medicine to help lower blood pressure, improve insulin metabolism, lower LDL cholesterol and raise HDL cholesterol, increase weight loss, or some combination of these.
Type 2 diabetes was also previously referred to as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), or adult-onset diabetes mellitus (AODM). In type 2 diabetes, patients can still produce insulin, but do so relatively inadequately for their body's needs, particularly in the face of insulin resistance as discussed above. In many cases this actually means the pancreas produces larger than normal quantities of insulin. A major feature of type 2 diabetes is a lack of sensitivity to insulin by the cells of the body (particularly fat and muscle cells). http://www.clairekerslake.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/ipad_new.png
^ Jump up to: a b Go, AS; Bauman, M; King, SM; Fonarow, GC; Lawrence, W; Williams, KA; Sanchez, E (15 November 2013). "An Effective Approach to High Blood Pressure Control: A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association, the American College of Cardiology, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention". Hypertension. 63 (4): 878–85. doi:10.1161/HYP.0000000000000003. PMID 24243703. Archived from the original on 20 November 2013. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
Especially severe cases of hypertension, or hypertensive crises, are defined as a BP of more than 180/120 mm Hg and may be further categorized as hypertensive emergencies or urgencies. Hypertensive emergencies are characterized by evidence of impending or progressive target organ dysfunction, whereas hypertensive urgencies are those situations without progressive target organ dysfunction. [2]

Anteroposterior x-ray from a 28-year old woman who presented with congestive heart failure secondary to her chronic hypertension, or high blood pressure. The enlarged cardiac silhouette on this image is due to congestive heart failure due to the effects of chronic high blood pressure on the left ventricle. The heart then becomes enlarged, and fluid accumulates in the lungs, known as pulmonary congestion.
Dietary factors also influence the risk of developing type 2 DM. Consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks in excess is associated with an increased risk.[46][47] The type of fats in the diet is also important, with saturated fat and trans fats increasing the risk and polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat decreasing the risk.[45] Eating lots of white rice, and other starches, also may increase the risk of diabetes.[48] A lack of physical activity is believed to cause 7% of cases.[49] https://www.healthshare.com.au/storage/avatars/photo_25.JPG.60x60_q85_box-21,38,480,497.jpg

Pregnant women with pre-eclampsia or toxemia require rest and close monitoring by their healthcare practitioner. The only cure for pre-eclampsia is delivery of the baby. In deciding when to deliver, the healthcare practitioner will try to minimize the risk to mother and baby from pre-eclampsia while allowing the baby the maximum time to mature. The time delay must be balanced against the increasing danger of seizures and organ damage in the mother, emergency conditions that can be lethal to both the baby and the mother.
Lifestyle changes and medications can lower blood pressure and decrease the risk of health complications.[8] Lifestyle changes include weight loss, physical exercise, decreased salt intake, reducing alcohol intake, and a healthy diet.[5] If lifestyle changes are not sufficient then blood pressure medications are used.[8] Up to three medications can control blood pressure in 90% of people.[5] The treatment of moderately high arterial blood pressure (defined as >160/100 mmHg) with medications is associated with an improved life expectancy.[14] The effect of treatment of blood pressure between 130/80 mmHg and 160/100 mmHg is less clear, with some reviews finding benefit[7][15][16] and others finding unclear benefit.[17][18][19] High blood pressure affects between 16 and 37% of the population globally.[5] In 2010 hypertension was believed to have been a factor in 18% of all deaths (9.4 million globally).[9]
The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) was a clinical study conducted by the United States National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) that was published in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1993. Test subjects all had diabetes mellitus type 1 and were randomized to a tight glycemic arm and a control arm with the standard of care at the time; people were followed for an average of seven years, and people in the treatment had dramatically lower rates of diabetic complications. It was as a landmark study at the time, and significantly changed the management of all forms of diabetes.[86][130][131]
James, Paul A.; Oparil, Suzanne; Carter, Barry L.; Cushman, William C.; Dennison-Himmelfarb, Cheryl; Handler, Joel; Lackland, Daniel T.; Lefevre, Michael L.; MacKenzie, Thomas D.; Ogedegbe, Olugbenga; Smith, Sidney C.; Svetkey, Laura P.; Taler, Sandra J.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Wright, Jackson T.; Narva, Andrew S.; Ortiz, Eduardo (18 December 2013). "2014 Evidence-Based Guideline for the Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults". JAMA. 311 (5): 507–20. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.284427. PMID 24352797.
Diabetes is a number of diseases that involve problems with the hormone insulin. Normally, the pancreas (an organ behind the stomach) releases insulin to help your body store and use the sugar and fat from the food you eat. Diabetes can occur when the pancreas produces very little or no insulin, or when the body does not respond appropriately to insulin. As yet, there is no cure. People with diabetes need to manage their disease to stay healthy.
By the end of the book, you'll be able to create your own safe, effective, and efficient training program best suited to you. Or just choose from one of our 10 general or specialized HIT routines contained in the book. You'll develop the knowledge to change and make it a sustainable effort over time to keep you consistent. You'll be able to adapt to the ever changing dynamic situation that is a progressive training program.
If you are diagnosed with metabolic syndrome, the goal of treatment will be to reduce your risk of developing further health complications. Your doctor will recommend lifestyle changes that may include losing between 7 and 10 percent of your current weight and getting at least 30 minutes of moderate to intense exercise five to seven days a week. They may also suggest that you quit smoking.
Between 2006 and 2011, there was a 25% increase in the number of people visiting US emergency rooms for essential hypertension, according to an analysis of data from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample in 2014. [37] The reason for the increase, however, remained uncertain. The rate of emergency department visits also increased significantly, according to the study, rising from 190.1 visits per 100,000 population in 2006 to 238.5 visits per 100,000 population in 2011. Over the same period, however, admission rates decreased, from 10.47% in 2006 to 8.85% in 2011. [37]
A 2018 study suggested that three types should be abandoned as too simplistic.[57] It classified diabetes into five subgroups, with what is typically described as type 1 and autoimmune late-onset diabetes categorized as one group, whereas type 2 encompasses four categories. This is hoped to improve diabetes treatment by tailoring it more specifically to the subgroups.[58]
Some people may ask: Why not just have liposuction of the abdomen and remove the large amount of abdominal fat that is a big part of the problem? Data thus far shows no benefit in liposuction on insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, or cholesterol. As the saying goes, "If it's too good to be true, it probably is." Diet and exercise are still the preferred primary treatment of metabolic syndrome.

High blood pressure is classified as either primary (essential) high blood pressure or secondary high blood pressure.[5] About 90–95% of cases are primary, defined as high blood pressure due to nonspecific lifestyle and genetic factors.[5][6] Lifestyle factors that increase the risk include excess salt in the diet, excess body weight, smoking, and alcohol use.[1][5] The remaining 5–10% of cases are categorized as secondary high blood pressure, defined as high blood pressure due to an identifiable cause, such as chronic kidney disease, narrowing of the kidney arteries, an endocrine disorder, or the use of birth control pills.[5]
[Guideline] Skyler JS, Bergenstal R, Bonow RO, et al. Intensive glycemic control and the prevention of cardiovascular events: implications of the ACCORD, ADVANCE, and VA Diabetes Trials: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association and a Scientific Statement of the American College of Cardiology Foundation and the American Heart Association. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009 Jan 20. 53(3):298-304. [Medline].
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