In a meta-analysis of pooled data from 19 prospective cohort studies involving 762,393 patients, Huang et al reported that, after adjustment for multiple cardiovascular risk factors, prehypertension was associated with a 66% increased risk for stroke, compared with an optimal blood pressure (< 120/80 mm Hg). [41, 42] Patients in the high range of prehypertension (130-139/85-89 mm Hg) had a 95% increased risk of stroke, compared with a 44% increased risk for those in the low range of prehypertension (120-129/80-84 mm Hg). [41, 42]
Diabetes was one of the first diseases described,[107] with an Egyptian manuscript from c. 1500 BCE mentioning "too great emptying of the urine".[108] The Ebers papyrus includes a recommendation for a drink to be taken in such cases.[109] The first described cases are believed to be of type 1 diabetes.[108] Indian physicians around the same time identified the disease and classified it as madhumeha or "honey urine", noting the urine would attract ants.[108][109]
Diabetes is a chronic, metabolic disease characterized by elevated levels of blood glucose (or blood sugar), which leads over time to serious damage to the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, and nerves. The most common is type 2 diabetes, usually in adults, which occurs when the body becomes resistant to insulin or doesn't make enough insulin. In the past three decades the prevalence of type 2 diabetes has risen dramatically in countries of all income levels. Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin by itself. For people living with diabetes, access to affordable treatment, including insulin, is critical to their survival. There is a globally agreed target to halt the rise in diabetes and obesity by 2025.
Target organ damage occurs through multiple mechanisms in metabolic syndrome. The individual diseases leading to metabolic syndrome produce adverse clinical consequences. For example, hypertension in metabolic syndrome causes left ventricular hypertrophy, progressive peripheral arterial disease, and renal dysfunction. [12] However, the cumulative risk for metabolic syndrome appears to cause microvascular dysfunction, which further amplifies insulin resistance and promotes hypertension. [13]
Dr Jacomien de Villiers qualified as a specialist physician at the University of Pretoria in 1995. She worked at various clinics at the Department of Internal Medicine, Steve Biko Hospital, these include General Internal Medicine, Hypertension, Diabetes and Cardiology. She has run a private practice since 2001, as well as a consultant post at the Endocrine Clinic of Steve Biko Hospital.
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease, for which there is no known cure except in very specific situations.[75] Management concentrates on keeping blood sugar levels as close to normal, without causing low blood sugar. This can usually be accomplished with a healthy diet, exercise, weight loss, and use of appropriate medications (insulin in the case of type 1 diabetes; oral medications, as well as possibly insulin, in type 2 diabetes). https://photo.isu.pub/careykingsbury/photo_large.jpg

^ Qaseem, A; Wilt, TJ; Rich, R; Humphrey, LL; Frost, J; Forciea, MA; Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians and the Commission on Health of the Public and Science of the American Academy of Family, Physicians. (21 March 2017). "Pharmacologic Treatment of Hypertension in Adults Aged 60 Years or Older to Higher Versus Lower Blood Pressure Targets: A Clinical Practice Guideline From the American College of Physicians and the American Academy of Family Physicians". Annals of Internal Medicine. 166 (6): 430–437. doi:10.7326/m16-1785. PMID 28135725.
From another perspective, hypertension may be categorized as either essential or secondary. Primary (essential) hypertension is diagnosed in the absence of an identifiable secondary cause. Approximately 90-95% of adults with hypertension have primary hypertension, whereas secondary hypertension accounts for around 5-10% of the cases. [9] However, secondary forms of hypertension, such as primary hyperaldosteronism, account for 20% of resistant hypertension (hypertension in which BP is >140/90 mm Hg despite the use of medications from 3 or more drug classes, 1 of which is a thiazide diuretic).
Blood pressure was traditionally measured using a stethoscope and a blood pressure cuff (called a sphygmomanometer), a device that includes a cuff, a bulb, and a pressure dial that reads the pressure in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). This is still considered the best method but, more commonly, devices that combine a blood pressure cuff with electronic sensors are used to measure blood pressure.
What medication is available for diabetes? Diabetes causes blood sugar levels to rise. The body may stop producing insulin, the hormone that regulates blood sugar, and this results in type 1 diabetes. In people with type 2 diabetes, insulin is not working effectively. Learn about the range of treatments for each type and recent medical developments here. Read now

People who have metabolic syndrome or are at risk for it may need to take medicine as treatment. This is especially true if diet and other lifestyle changes have not made a difference. Your doctor may prescribe medicine to help lower blood pressure, improve insulin metabolism, lower LDL cholesterol and raise HDL cholesterol, increase weight loss, or some combination of these.
In 1977 and 1978, Gerald B. Phillips developed the concept that risk factors for myocardial infarction concur to form a "constellation of abnormalities" (i.e., glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension) associated not only with heart disease, but also with aging, obesity and other clinical states. He suggested there must be an underlying linking factor, the identification of which could lead to the prevention of cardiovascular disease; he hypothesized that this factor was sex hormones.[66][67]
At present, the American Diabetes Association does not recommend general screening of the population for type 1 diabetes, though screening of high risk individuals, such as those with a first degree relative (sibling or parent) with type 1 diabetes should be encouraged. Type 1 diabetes tends to occur in young, lean individuals, usually before 30 years of age; however, older patients do present with this form of diabetes on occasion. This subgroup is referred to as latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA). LADA is a slow, progressive form of type 1 diabetes. Of all the people with diabetes, only approximately 10% have type 1 diabetes and the remaining 90% have type 2 diabetes.
In type 2 diabetes, there also is a steady decline of beta cells that adds to the process of elevated blood sugars. Essentially, if someone is resistant to insulin, the body can, to some degree, increase production of insulin and overcome the level of resistance. After time, if production decreases and insulin cannot be released as vigorously, hyperglycemia develops.
Cycle the diet in a way that has periods of reduced energy intake and periods of increased energy intake. This helps offset the leptin decline that occurs with dieting. There is individual variation with this, but for those who respond well, a day or a few days of overeating can set the metabolic rate back to a higher level. This cycling approach may be more effective for fat loss than the traditional approach http://www.sandysidhumedia.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/sheliaquote.jpg
Usually, there are no immediate physical symptoms of metabolic syndrome. People with metabolic syndrome do have a tendency to be overweight, especially around the abdomen – having an “apple shape.” Moreover, since this condition is associated with insulin resistance, individuals with metabolic syndrome may display some of the clinical features associated with an increase in the production of insulin. For instance, women may experience cysts on their ovaries (metabolic syndrome is associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome) and irregular periods. Individuals can have an increased incidence of skin tags, benign raised growths of skin that usually appear increases on the neck and back. In addition, they can exhibit acanthosis nigricans – a pigmentation of the skin, which appears discolored or dirty over the back of the neck and underarms.

[Guideline] Alberti KG, Eckel RH, Grundy SM, et al. Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesity. Circulation. 2009 Oct 20. 120(16):1640-5. [Medline].
When you have type 2 diabetes, your cells don't get enough glucose, which may cause you to lose weight. Also, if you are urinating more frequently because of uncontrolled diabetes, you may lose more calories and water, resulting in weight loss, says Daniel Einhorn, MD, medical director of the Scripps Whittier Diabetes Institute and clinical professor of medicine at the University of California in San Diego.
Lastly, metabolic resistance training is only part of the equation. You cannot out-train a terrible diet. Let me repeat, you cannot out-train a terrible diet even with something as potent and powerful as MRT. Read How To Lose Weight Without Counting Calories or Intermittent Fasting For Rapid Fat Loss for more info on effective nutritional strategies.
^ Aronow WS, Fleg JL, Pepine CJ, Artinian NT, Bakris G, Brown AS, Ferdinand KC, Ann Forciea M, Frishman WH, Jaigobin C, Kostis JB, Mancia G, Oparil S, Ortiz E, Reisin E, Rich MW, Schocken DD, Weber MA, Wesley DJ, Harrington RA, Bates ER, Bhatt DL, Bridges CR, Eisenberg MJ, Ferrari VA, Fisher JD, Gardner TJ, Gentile F, Gilson MF, Hlatky MA, Jacobs AK, Kaul S, Moliterno DJ, Mukherjee D, Rosenson RS, Stein JH, Weitz HH, Wesley DJ (2011). "ACCF/AHA 2011 expert consensus document on hypertension in the elderly: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Task Force on Clinical Expert Consensus Documents developed in collaboration with the American Academy of Neurology, American Geriatrics Society, American Society for Preventive Cardiology, American Society of Hypertension, American Society of Nephrology, Association of Black Cardiologists, and European Society of Hypertension". J Am Soc Hypertens. 5 (4): 259–352. doi:10.1016/j.jash.2011.06.001. PMID 21771565.

The brain is crucial in development of metabolic syndrome, modulating peripheral carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.[33][34] The metabolic syndrome can be induced by overfeeding with sugar or fructose, particularly concomitantly with high-fat diet.[36] The resulting oversupply of omega-6 fatty acids, particularly arachidonic acid (AA), is an important factor in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome.


Leading a healthy lifestyle now can reduce your risk of developing the health risks associated with metabolic syndrome as you get older. Effective prevention includes eating a healthy diet by following Canada's Food Guide and exercising for 150 minutes every week. Seeing your doctor for routine check ups and checking your blood glucose levels, blood pressure, blood cholesterol, and weight will help you monitor your health.

While diet is the most important aspect of achieving fat loss, increasing physical output after the weight is lost is essential and makes up some of the calorie deficit created by the slowed metabolism. This exercise should be something that does not stimulate appetite and can easily be incorporated into any lifestyle. We suggest you start with leisure walking and shoot for 1-2 hours daily (2.5-5miles or 5K to 10K steps).


^ Jump up to: a b c d e f James, PA.; Oparil, S.; Carter, BL.; Cushman, WC.; Dennison-Himmelfarb, C.; Handler, J.; Lackland, DT.; Lefevre, ML.; et al. (Dec 2013). "2014 Evidence-Based Guideline for the Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults: Report From the Panel Members Appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8)". JAMA. 311 (5): 507–20. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.284427. PMID 24352797.
Diabetes is a disease in which your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. Glucose comes from the foods you eat. Insulin is a hormone that helps the glucose get into your cells to give them energy. With type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not make or use insulin well. Without enough insulin, the glucose stays in your blood. You can also have prediabetes. This means that your blood sugar is higher than normal but not high enough to be called diabetes. Having prediabetes puts you at a higher risk of getting type 2 diabetes.
The symptoms may relate to fluid loss and polyuria, but the course may also be insidious. Diabetic animals are more prone to infections. The long-term complications recognized in humans are much rarer in animals. The principles of treatment (weight loss, oral antidiabetics, subcutaneous insulin) and management of emergencies (e.g. ketoacidosis) are similar to those in humans.[123]
People with full-blown type 2 diabetes are not able to use the hormone insulin properly, and have what’s called insulin resistance. Insulin is necessary for glucose, or sugar, to get from your blood into your cells to be used for energy. When there is not enough insulin — or when the hormone doesn’t function as it should — glucose accumulates in the blood instead of being used by the cells. This sugar accumulation may lead to the aforementioned complications.
High-sensitivity C-reactive protein has been developed and used as a marker to predict coronary vascular diseases in metabolic syndrome, and it was recently used as a predictor for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (steatohepatitis) in correlation with serum markers that indicated lipid and glucose metabolism.[45] Fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis can be considered as manifestations of metabolic syndrome, indicative of abnormal energy storage as fat in ectopic distribution. Reproductive disorders (such as polycystic ovary syndrome in women of reproductive age), and erectile dysfunction or decreased total testosterone (low testosterone-binding globulin) in men can be attributed to metabolic syndrome.[46]
When a blood pressure reading is taken, the higher number represents the systolic pressure and the lower number represents the diastolic pressure. For example: 120/80 (120 over 80) in an adult means that the systolic pressure is 120 and the diastolic pressure is 80. As kids grow, their blood pressure increases from a systolic pressure of about 70–90 (as babies) to adult values (when they're teens).
Adapted from:  Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, et al, and the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; National High Blood Pressure Education Program Coordinating Committee. Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Hypertension. Dec 2003;42(6):1206-52. [2]

Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Hypertension is diagnosed on the basis of a persistently high resting blood pressure. The American Heart Association recommends at least three resting measurements on at least two separate health care visits.[74] The UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence recommends ambulatory blood pressure monitoring to confirm the diagnosis of hypertension if a clinic blood pressure is 140/90 mmHg or higher.[75]
Hypertension or high blood pressure is a chronic medical condition in which the pressure or tension in the arteries is elevated. It is often called the "silent disease" as it has no symptoms and can go undetected for years, damaging your tissues and vital organs. If you have hypertension, your heart works harder than it should to pump blood to your tissues and organs. If this pressure isn't controlled, your heart enlarges and your arteries become scarred and hardened. Eventually, your overworked heart may not be able to pump and transport blood properly through these arteries. This can result in heart disease, kidney disease, the hardening of the arteries, eye damage, and stroke. Hypertension can be caused by a number of factors including your genes, underlying disease and lifestyle.
If you're short on time but still want to fit in an effective training session—especially if your goal is fat burn—metabolic resistance training (MRT) is tough to beat. With this training style, the goal is to maximize caloric expenditure while also increasing your metabolic rate. There are many different ways to structure an MRT session, but generally speaking, circuit training lends itself well to this approach.
Kidney damage from diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy. The onset of kidney disease and its progression is extremely variable. Initially, diseased small blood vessels in the kidneys cause the leakage of protein in the urine. Later on, the kidneys lose their ability to cleanse and filter blood. The accumulation of toxic waste products in the blood leads to the need for dialysis. Dialysis involves using a machine that serves the function of the kidney by filtering and cleaning the blood. In patients who do not want to undergo chronic dialysis, kidney transplantation can be considered. https://www.lorilynnsmith.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/2012-04-30_2116.png
×