Leptin is considered by many to be THE most important metabolic hormone as far as setting metabolic output and weight regain. If you want to keep your metabolic rate up, you have to make sure leptin levels don’t fall too fast. One way to overcome this appears to be a short period of overeating of between 1 and 3 days. This technique raises leptin levels and has also been shown to substantially raise a depressed metabolic rate. This effect varies substantially from person to person with some people showing no effect from the brief overfeeding and others seeing a jump in resting calorie burn of several hundred calories per day.
The discussion of weight and weight loss has evolved dramatically over the past 10-15 years. In some ways this has been for the better, but in other ways for the worse. I am incredibly grateful that the discussion has moved beyond just the calories in, calories out model (because we all know at this point that that is crap!). This notion though, that calories are not the key point of the equation has spurred a $66.3 BILLION dollar diet industry. Whether this is diet pills, the gym, or other contraptions that promise to shake your last 10lbs off the general understanding is that people are being taken for a very expensive ride. At the same time though, more North American’s are in the over weight and obese category than ever. So what digs?

The clinical value of using "metabolic syndrome" as a diagnosis has previously been debated due to different sets of conflicting and incomplete diagnostic criteria. These concerns have led the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes to issue a joint statement identifying eight major concerns on the clinical utility of the metabolic syndrome diagnosis.[69] The principal argument has been that when confounding factors such as obesity are accounted for, diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome has a negligible association with the risk of heart disease.[70] http://media-cache-ec5.pinterest.com/upload/21110691974453216_0I4oS4Zs_c.jpg


Have you ever eaten a salad with low fat dressing, hold the nuts with a swap for lean protein? Did you leave feeling hungry, unsatisfied and searching for something else to fill you up? When this happens and you end up snacking throughout the day you never have the opportunity to burn fat as fuel because your metabolic hormones are increased and you never enter the fasting stage. No Bueno!
How many calories should I eat a day? A calorie is an amount of energy that a particular food provides. Consuming more calories than needed will result in weight gain, consuming too few will result in weight loss. How many calories a person should eat each day depends on a variety of factors, such as age, size, sex, activity levels, and general health. Read now
Medications used to treat diabetes do so by lowering blood sugar levels. There is broad consensus that when people with diabetes maintain tight glucose control (also called "tight glycemic control") – keeping the glucose levels in their blood within normal ranges – that they experience fewer complications like kidney problems and eye problems.[84][85] There is however debate as to whether this is cost effective for people later in life.[86]
Home blood sugar (glucose) testing is an important part of controlling blood sugar. One important goal of diabetes treatment is to keep the blood glucose levels near the normal range of 70 to 120 mg/dl before meals and under 140 mg/dl at two hours after eating. Blood glucose levels are usually tested before and after meals, and at bedtime. The blood sugar level is typically determined by pricking a fingertip with a lancing device and applying the blood to a glucose meter, which reads the value. There are many meters on the market, for example, Accu-Check Advantage, One Touch Ultra, Sure Step and Freestyle. Each meter has its own advantages and disadvantages (some use less blood, some have a larger digital readout, some take a shorter time to give you results, etc.). The test results are then used to help patients make adjustments in medications, diets, and physical activities.
Though not routinely used any longer, the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is a gold standard for making the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. It is still commonly used for diagnosing gestational diabetes and in conditions of pre-diabetes, such as polycystic ovary syndrome. With an oral glucose tolerance test, the person fasts overnight (at least eight but not more than 16 hours). Then first, the fasting plasma glucose is tested. After this test, the person receives an oral dose (75 grams) of glucose. There are several methods employed by obstetricians to do this test, but the one described here is standard. Usually, the glucose is in a sweet-tasting liquid that the person drinks. Blood samples are taken at specific intervals to measure the blood glucose.
That means doing full-body workouts in a superset, tri-set, barbell or kettlebell complex, or circuit format with non-competing exercises that create the biggest metabolic demand. But it must be done in a rep range that generates lactic acid and pushes the lactic acid threshold. Training legs, back, and chest will burn more calories and elevate metabolism more than an isolated approach training one of them. The rep range that works the best is the 8-12 hypertrophy range.
Various expert groups have produced guidelines regarding how low the blood pressure target should be when a person is treated for hypertension. These groups recommend a target below the range 140–160 / 90–100 mmHg for the general population.[13][99][100][101][102] Cochrane reviews recommend similar targets for subgroups such as people with diabetes[103] and people with prior cardiovascular disease.[104]

Both numbers in a blood pressure reading are important. But after age 50, the systolic reading is even more significant. Isolated systolic hypertension is a condition in which the diastolic pressure is normal (less than 80 mm Hg) but systolic pressure is high (greater than or equal to 130 mm Hg). This is a common type of high blood pressure among people older than 65.

A person who weighed 180 pounds who diets down to 150 pounds burns significantly less energy than another person of the same height who also weighs 150 pounds who did not diet. Something about dieting causes an exaggerated slow down in metabolic rate that goes beyond what would be predicted based on tissue loss. And, as pointed out previously, this comes along with strong and unrelenting biological sensations to seek food. That is a recipe for compensatory weight regain.
Cortisol reactivity, an index of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function, may be another mechanism by which psychosocial stress is associated with future hypertension. [20] In a prospective sub-study of the Whitehall II cohort, with 3 years follow-up of an occupational cohort in previously healthy patients, investigators reported 15.9% of the patient sample developed hypertension in response to laboratory-induced mental stressors and found an association between cortisol stress reactivity and incident hypertension. [20]
Usually, diastolic pressures will mirror systolic pressures, but as people age, the diastolic pressure tends to level out. Then, the form of hypertension that involves primarily the systolic pressure (called isolated systolic hypertension) becomes more common. In general, the greater the blood pressure for extended periods of time, the greater the potential for damage.
Optimally, the management approach results in weight loss based on a healthy diet and regular physical activity, which includes a combination of aerobic activity and resistance training, reinforced with behavioral therapy. Metformin, an insulin sensitizer, or a thiazolidinedione (eg, rosiglitazone, pioglitazone) may be useful. Weight loss of ≈ 7% may be sufficient to reverse the syndrome, but if not, each feature of the syndrome should be managed to achieve recommended targets; available drug treatment is very effective.
* Some examples of agents that induce hypertension include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors; illicit drugs; sympathomimetic agents; oral contraceptive or adrenal steroid hormones; cyclosporine and tacrolimus; licorice; erythropoietin; and certain over-the-counter dietary supplements and medicines, such as ephedra, ma huang, and bitter orange. Drug-related causes of hypertension may be due to nonadherence, inadequate doses, and inappropriate combinations.
In hypertensive emergency, there is evidence of direct damage to one or more organs.[27][28] The most affected organs include the brain, kidney, heart and lungs, producing symptoms which may include confusion, drowsiness, chest pain and breathlessness.[26] In hypertensive emergency, the blood pressure must be reduced more rapidly to stop ongoing organ damage,[26] however, there is a lack of randomized controlled trial evidence for this approach.[28]
^ Jump up to: a b Kato, Norihiro; Loh, Marie; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Verweij, Niek; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Weihua; Kelly, Tanika N.; Saleheen, Danish; Lehne, Benjamin (2015-11-01). "Trans-ancestry genome-wide association study identifies 12 genetic loci influencing blood pressure and implicates a role for DNA methylation". Nature Genetics. 47 (11): 1282–93. doi:10.1038/ng.3405. ISSN 1546-1718. PMC 4719169. PMID 26390057.
Mind/Body: It is important to attend to stress in positive ways. Rather than using alcohol, tobacco, or television, try breathing exercises. They are simple, free, and right under your nose. Dr. Weil has compiled ten ways to reduce stress and promote relaxation, calm and peace within yourself. Some techniques take practice, and most require some commitment on your part to achieve results. However, the results are well worth the effort.
Okay, you've suffered through the particulars and are sufficiently MRT-educated. Let's get to the good stuff: three tried-and-true MRT strategies guaranteed to help strip away stubborn fat and heighten acid-buffering ability. You can stick with one strategy for a given timeframe or periodize strategies from one week to the next. Regardless of what you decide to do, it's best to insert an "unloading microcycle" (one week of light weight) every fourth week or so to avoid the potential for overtraining. During the unloading cycle, reduce the effort expended so you're not substantially challenging your muscles on the last few reps of each set (aim for about a 7 on an RPE scale of 1-10). As a general rule, limit metabolic training cycles to a maximum of about 8 weeks. Any longer and you risk compromising muscular gains.
Instead of an arbitrary goal to “lose weight,” talk with your doctor about a healthy weight for you. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends a weight loss goal of one to two pounds a week. That means starting off eating 500 calories less per day than what you normally eat. Then decide on what physical activity you can start in order to reach that goal. If exercising five nights a week is too hard to work into your schedule, aim for one more night than what you’re doing right now. When that fits comfortably into your schedule, add another night.
Type 1 and type 2 diabetes were identified as separate conditions for the first time by the Indian physicians Sushruta and Charaka in 400–500 CE with type 1 associated with youth and type 2 with being overweight.[108] The term "mellitus" or "from honey" was added by the Briton John Rolle in the late 1700s to separate the condition from diabetes insipidus, which is also associated with frequent urination.[108] Effective treatment was not developed until the early part of the 20th century, when Canadians Frederick Banting and Charles Herbert Best isolated and purified insulin in 1921 and 1922.[108] This was followed by the development of the long-acting insulin NPH in the 1940s.[108]
In 1977 and 1978, Gerald B. Phillips developed the concept that risk factors for myocardial infarction concur to form a "constellation of abnormalities" (i.e., glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension) associated not only with heart disease, but also with aging, obesity and other clinical states. He suggested there must be an underlying linking factor, the identification of which could lead to the prevention of cardiovascular disease; he hypothesized that this factor was sex hormones.[66][67]
Hypertension results from a complex interaction of genes and environmental factors. Numerous common genetic variants with small effects on blood pressure have been identified[34] as well as some rare genetic variants with large effects on blood pressure.[35] Also, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 35 genetic loci related to blood pressure; 12 of these genetic loci influencing blood pressure were newly found.[36] Sentinel SNP for each new genetic locus identified has shown an association with DNA methylation at multiple nearby CpG sites. These sentinel SNP are located within genes related to vascular smooth muscle and renal function. DNA methylation might affect in some way linking common genetic variation to multiple phenotypes even though mechanisms underlying these associations are not understood. Single variant test performed in this study for the 35 sentinel SNP (known and new) showed that genetic variants singly or in aggregate contribute to risk of clinical phenotypes related to high blood pressure.[36]
Insulin — the hormone that allows your body to regulate sugar in the blood — is made in your pancreas. Essentially, insulin resistance is a state in which the body’s cells do not use insulin efficiently. As a result, it takes more insulin than normal to transport blood sugar (glucose) into cells, to be used immediately for fuel or stored for later use. A drop in efficiency in getting glucose to cells creates a problem for cell function; glucose is normally the body’s quickest and most readily available source of energy.
But, the metabolism compensates. This person starts feeling hungry all the time. Their energy begins to suffer, and they feel cravings for sweet, salty, and fatty foods. This makes it harder for them to comply. But worse than that, depending on their individual response to the law of metabolic compensation, their metabolism has now put on the brakes, slowing their daily calorie burn rate by between 200 and 800 calories per day.
The pathogenesis of essential hypertension is multifactorial and complex. [13] Multiple factors modulate the blood pressure (BP) including humoral mediators, vascular reactivity, circulating blood volume, vascular caliber, blood viscosity, cardiac output, blood vessel elasticity, and neural stimulation. A possible pathogenesis of essential hypertension has been proposed in which multiple factors, including genetic predisposition, excess dietary salt intake, and adrenergic tone, may interact to produce hypertension. Although genetics appears to contribute, the exact mechanisms underlying essential hypertension have not been established.

These calorie counting fanatics are either unaware, or don’t want you to know about what we call the law of metabolic compensation. This law dictates that your metabolism is not like a calculator at all but more like a thermostat or see-saw. You eat less and exercise more to burn calories, and your body compensates by making you more hungry while at the same time decreasing the amount of calories you burn at rest (resting energy expenditure or REE).
Undiagnosed metabolic conditions are rampant in today’s society because medical providers are simply not testing for them.  Most commonly medical providers are solely looking and testing for diseases they can treat with medications or surgery.  This leaves a large hole in healthcare for those that are struggling with their weight and health, but do not need drugs or surgery.  We call this the medical black hole.  Ultimately, because of the medical black hole millions of americans are walking around every day with hidden metabolic disorders that are allowed to spread and worsen over time as metabolism in an interconnected web.  One area affects all other areas.
Tips for Success: Read your labels. Watch out for hidden carbs; to calculate the grams of carbs that impact your blood sugar, subtract the number of grams of dietary fiber from the total number of carb grams. Also double-check serving sizes on labels; some foods and drinks are actually two or more servings, so you need to add in those extra carbs and calories.
Physical changes: If something in your body changes, you may begin experiencing issues throughout your body. High blood pressure may be one of those issues. For example, it’s thought that changes in your kidney function due to aging may upset the body’s natural balance of salts and fluid. This change may cause your body’s blood pressure to increase.
The Mediterranean diet is palatable and easily sustained. In addition, recent studies have shown that when compared to a low fat diet, people on the Mediterranean diet have a greater decrease in body weight, and also had greater improvements in blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and other markers of heart disease -- all of which are important in evaluating and treating metabolic syndrome.
These calorie counting fanatics are either unaware, or don’t want you to know about what we call the law of metabolic compensation. This law dictates that your metabolism is not like a calculator at all but more like a thermostat or see-saw. You eat less and exercise more to burn calories, and your body compensates by making you more hungry while at the same time decreasing the amount of calories you burn at rest (resting energy expenditure or REE).
Over time, a prolonged exposure to high blood sugar can damage the nerves throughout the body — a condition called diabetic neuropathy. Some people may not have any symptoms of the damage, while others may notice numbness, tingling, or pain in the extremities. “At the beginning, [diabetic neuropathy] usually starts in the feet and then it progresses upward,” says Dr. Ovalle. Although most common in people who have had type 2 diabetes for 25 years or more, it can occur in people who have prediabetes as well. In some studies, almost 50 percent of unexplained peripheral neuropathy [in the extremities], whether painful or otherwise, turns out to be caused by prediabetes or diabetes, says Dr. Einhorn.
Insulin serves as a “key” to open your cells, to allow the glucose to enter -- and allow you to use the glucose for energy.  Without insulin, there is no “key.”   So, the sugar stays -- and builds up-- in the blood. The result: the body’s cells starve from the lack of glucose.  And, if left untreated, the high level of “blood sugar” can damage eyes, kidneys, nerves, and the heart, and can also lead to coma and death. 
*All medications have both common (generic) and brand names. The brand name is what a specific manufacturer calls the product (e.g., Tylenol®). The common name is the medical name for the medication (e.g., acetaminophen). A medication may have many brand names, but only one common name. This article lists medications by their common names. For information on a given medication, check our Drug Information database. For more information on brand names, speak with your doctor or pharmacist.
Monitor your blood pressure at home. Home blood pressure monitoring can help you keep closer tabs on your blood pressure, show if medication is working, and even alert you and your doctor to potential complications. Home blood pressure monitoring isn't a substitute for visits to your doctor, and home blood pressure monitors may have some limitations. Even if you get normal readings, don't stop or change your medications or alter your diet without talking to your doctor first.
Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar (glucose) levels that result from defects in insulin secretion, or its action, or both. Diabetes mellitus, commonly referred to as diabetes (as it will be in this article) was first identified as a disease associated with "sweet urine," and excessive muscle loss in the ancient world. Elevated levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia) lead to spillage of glucose into the urine, hence the term sweet urine.
Triglycerides are a common form of fat that we digest. Triglycerides are the main ingredient in animal fats and vegetable oils. Elevated levels of triglycerides are a risk factor for heart disease, heart attack, stroke, fatty liver disease, and pancreatitis. Elevated levels of triglycerides are also associated with diseases like diabetes, kidney disease, and medications (for example, diuretics, birth control pills, and beta blockers). Dietary changes, and medication if necessary can help lower triglyceride blood levels. https://i.ytimg.com/vi/HfSlhc6-kes/hqdefault.jpg?sqp
Diabetes is a disease in which your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. Glucose comes from the foods you eat. Insulin is a hormone that helps the glucose get into your cells to give them energy. With type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not make or use insulin well. Without enough insulin, the glucose stays in your blood. You can also have prediabetes. This means that your blood sugar is higher than normal but not high enough to be called diabetes. Having prediabetes puts you at a higher risk of getting type 2 diabetes.
Bhasin et al, as part of the Framingham Heart Study, found that sex hormone-binding globulin is independently associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome, whereas testosterone is not. Age, body mass index (BMI), and insulin sensitivity independently affect sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone levels. [48] More recent studies have raised the possibility of an association between testosterone deficiency and metabolic syndrome. [49]
Blood pressure is the measurement of the pressure or force of blood pushing against blood vessel walls. In hypertension (high blood pressure), the pressure against the blood vessel walls is consistently too high. High blood pressure is often called the “silent killer” because you may not be aware that anything is wrong, but the damage is occurring within your body.
There are some interesting developments in blood glucose monitoring including continuous glucose sensors. The new continuous glucose sensor systems involve an implantable cannula placed just under the skin in the abdomen or in the arm. This cannula allows for frequent sampling of blood glucose levels. Attached to this is a transmitter that sends the data to a pager-like device. This device has a visual screen that allows the wearer to see, not only the current glucose reading, but also the graphic trends. In some devices, the rate of change of blood sugar is also shown. There are alarms for low and high sugar levels. Certain models will alarm if the rate of change indicates the wearer is at risk for dropping or rising blood glucose too rapidly. One version is specifically designed to interface with their insulin pumps. In most cases the patient still must manually approve any insulin dose (the pump cannot blindly respond to the glucose information it receives, it can only give a calculated suggestion as to whether the wearer should give insulin, and if so, how much). However, in 2013 the US FDA approved the first artificial pancreas type device, meaning an implanted sensor and pump combination that stops insulin delivery when glucose levels reach a certain low point. All of these devices need to be correlated to fingersticks measurements for a few hours before they can function independently. The devices can then provide readings for 3 to 5 days.

Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited form of diabetes, due to one of several single-gene mutations causing defects in insulin production.[52] It is significantly less common than the three main types. The name of this disease refers to early hypotheses as to its nature. Being due to a defective gene, this disease varies in age at presentation and in severity according to the specific gene defect; thus there are at least 13 subtypes of MODY. People with MODY often can control it without using insulin.


If your blood pressure is elevated, your doctor may request you have more readings over the course of a few days or weeks. A hypertension diagnosis is rarely given after just one reading. Your doctor needs to see evidence of a sustained problem. That’s because your environment can contribute to increased blood pressure, such as the stress you may feel by being at the doctor’s office. Also, blood pressure levels change throughout the day.
Cataracts and glaucoma are also more common among diabetics. It is also important to note that since the lens of the eye lets water through, if blood sugar concentrations vary a lot, the lens of the eye will shrink and swell with fluid accordingly. As a result, blurry vision is very common in poorly controlled diabetes. Patients are usually discouraged from getting a new eyeglass prescription until their blood sugar is controlled. This allows for a more accurate assessment of what kind of glasses prescription is required.

Potassium – as part of the electrolyte panel, which also includes sodium, chloride, and carbon dioxide (CO2); to evaluate and monitor the balance of the body's electrolytes. For example, low potassium can be seen in Cushing syndrome and Conn syndrome, two causes of secondary hypertension. Some high blood pressure medications can upset electrolyte balance by causing excessive loss of potassium or potassium retention.
Lipase inhibitors can play a role. These are foods that have action in decreasing the digestion of fats so they move out of the body instead of getting absorbed. Since the digestive tract is the major place where POPs are both removed from the body and taken into the body, doing what is possible to NOT allow fat soluble compounds reentry is important. Some common lipase inhibitors include green tea, oolong tea, mate tea, and ginger root. https://i.ytimg.com/vi/8AdXhRXuQLU/hqdefault.jpg?sqp
×