Diabetes was one of the first diseases described,[107] with an Egyptian manuscript from c. 1500 BCE mentioning "too great emptying of the urine".[108] The Ebers papyrus includes a recommendation for a drink to be taken in such cases.[109] The first described cases are believed to be of type 1 diabetes.[108] Indian physicians around the same time identified the disease and classified it as madhumeha or "honey urine", noting the urine would attract ants.[108][109] http://www.productiveresourcing.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/Nat-Squared-WE.jpg
POPs primarily impact the thyroid gland by decreasing its ability to make thyroid hormone, disrupting thyroid hormones once they are made, and causing thyroid hormones to be removed from the body faster. If your metabolism is a large jumbo jetliner, the thyroid gland is one of the engines. POPs appear to work in part by blowing out the thyroid engine.
Globally, an estimated 26% of the world’s population (972 million people) has hypertension, and the prevalence is expected to increase to 29% by 2025, driven largely by increases in economically developing nations. [34] The high prevalence of hypertension exacts a tremendous public health burden. As a primary contributor to heart disease and stroke, the first and third leading causes of death worldwide, respectively, high blood pressure was the top modifiable risk factor for disability adjusted life-years lost worldwide in 2013. [35, 36]
Enlarged heart. High blood pressure increases the amount of work for your heart. Like any heavily exercised muscle in your body, your heart grows bigger (enlarges) to handle the extra workload. The bigger your heart is, the more it demands oxygen-rich blood but the less able it is to maintain proper blood flow. As a result, you feel weak and tired and are not able to exercise or perform physical activities. Without treatment, your heart failure will only get worse.
The pathogenesis of essential hypertension is multifactorial and complex. [13] Multiple factors modulate the blood pressure (BP) including humoral mediators, vascular reactivity, circulating blood volume, vascular caliber, blood viscosity, cardiac output, blood vessel elasticity, and neural stimulation. A possible pathogenesis of essential hypertension has been proposed in which multiple factors, including genetic predisposition, excess dietary salt intake, and adrenergic tone, may interact to produce hypertension. Although genetics appears to contribute, the exact mechanisms underlying essential hypertension have not been established.
Naturally, since the metabolic syndrome is a disorder of energy distribution and storage, fat accumulation explains for a significant proportion of cardiovascular risk. However, obesity without metabolic syndrome does not confer a significant cardiovascular risk, whereas metabolic syndrome without obesity is associated with a significant risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This association of metabolic syndrome with diabetes can be illustrated by generalized lipodystrophy (near complete absence of adipose tissue). The animals and humans with generalized lipodystrophy develop signs of metabolic syndrome in the absence of adipose tissue; and the metabolic syndrome progresses to type 2 diabetes. Adipose tissue transplantation in transgenic mice with lipodystrophy can cure the type 2 diabetes.
Although the first formal definition of metabolic syndrome entered medical textbooks not so long ago (1998), it is as widespread as pimples and the common cold . According to the American Heart Association, 47 million Americans have it. That's almost a staggering one out of every six people. The syndrome runs in families and is more common among African-Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and Native Americans. The risks of developing metabolic syndrome increases as you age.
The best way to prevent metabolic syndrom is to adopt heart-healthy lifestyle changes. Make sure to schedule routine doctor visits to keep track of your cholesterol, blood pressure, and blood sugar levels. Speak with your doctor about a blood test called a lipoprotein panel, which shows your levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides.
Creatinine is a chemical waste molecule that is generated from muscle metabolism. Creatinine is produced from creatine, a molecule of major importance for energy production in muscles. Creatinine has been found to be a fairly reliable indicator of kidney function. As the kidneys become impaired the creatinine level in the blood will rise. Normal levels of creatinine in the blood vary from gender and age of the individual.

Per the WHO, people with fasting glucose levels from 6.1 to 6.9 mmol/l (110 to 125 mg/dl) are considered to have impaired fasting glucose.[67] people with plasma glucose at or above 7.8 mmol/l (140 mg/dl), but not over 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl), two hours after a 75 gram oral glucose load are considered to have impaired glucose tolerance. Of these two prediabetic states, the latter in particular is a major risk factor for progression to full-blown diabetes mellitus, as well as cardiovascular disease.[68] The American Diabetes Association (ADA) since 2003 uses a slightly different range for impaired fasting glucose of 5.6 to 6.9 mmol/l (100 to 125 mg/dl).[69]

Researchers used a circuit training protocol of 12 sets in 31 minutes. EPOC (Exercise Post Oxygen Consumption) was elevated significantly for 38 hours post-workout. That's a significant timeframe for metabolism to be elevated. If you trained for one hour on Monday morning, you'd still be burning more calories (without training) at midnight on Tuesday.
The pathogenesis of essential hypertension is multifactorial and complex. [13] Multiple factors modulate the blood pressure (BP) including humoral mediators, vascular reactivity, circulating blood volume, vascular caliber, blood viscosity, cardiac output, blood vessel elasticity, and neural stimulation. A possible pathogenesis of essential hypertension has been proposed in which multiple factors, including genetic predisposition, excess dietary salt intake, and adrenergic tone, may interact to produce hypertension. Although genetics appears to contribute, the exact mechanisms underlying essential hypertension have not been established.
Pre-eclampsia is a serious condition of the second half of pregnancy and following delivery characterised by increased blood pressure and the presence of protein in the urine.[23] It occurs in about 5% of pregnancies and is responsible for approximately 16% of all maternal deaths globally.[23] Pre-eclampsia also doubles the risk of death of the baby around the time of birth.[23] Usually there are no symptoms in pre-eclampsia and it is detected by routine screening. When symptoms of pre-eclampsia occur the most common are headache, visual disturbance (often "flashing lights"), vomiting, pain over the stomach, and swelling. Pre-eclampsia can occasionally progress to a life-threatening condition called eclampsia, which is a hypertensive emergency and has several serious complications including vision loss, brain swelling, seizures, kidney failure, pulmonary edema, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (a blood clotting disorder).[23][31]

While there is a strong genetic component to developing this form of diabetes, there are other risk factors - the most significant of which is obesity. There is a direct relationship between the degree of obesity and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, and this holds true in children as well as adults. It is estimated that the chance to develop diabetes doubles for every 20% increase over desirable body weight.
Both Metabolic Resistance Training workouts and Cardio Interval Training workouts offer an intense experience in a condensed timeframe. Both will torch fat and push you to the next level. And both will elevate your body's furnace, burning calories long after you've showered and crashed on the couch. But despite the fact both are advertised as such, only one (CRT) technically qualifies as HIIT training. So the next time your workout buddy suggests taking a HIIT course, double check on what type of workout experience they are aiming for.
Polycystic ovarian syndrome. Thought to be related to insulin resistance, this disorder involves the release of extra male hormones by the ovaries, which can lead to abnormal menstrual bleeding, excessive hair growth, acne, and fertility problems. It is also associated with an increased risk for obesity, hypertension, and — in the long-term — diabetes, heart disease, and cancer.
Eating mindfully. A child who learns to see food as fuel and not emotional compensation can start to make better choices at mealtime — for example, selecting complex carbs instead of simple carbs (whole-grain instead of white bread, brown rice instead of white); getting more fiber with beans, fruits, and vegetables; choosing "healthy" fats like olive oil and nuts; and avoiding too many empty calories from soda and sweets.
People with type 2 diabetes have insulin resistance, which means the body cannot use insulin properly to help glucose get into the cells. In people with type 2 diabetes, insulin doesn’t work well in muscle, fat, and other tissues, so your pancreas (the organ that makes insulin) starts to put out a lot more of it to try and compensate. "This results in high insulin levels in the body,” says Fernando Ovalle, MD, director of the multidisciplinary diabetes clinic at the University of Alabama in Birmingham. This insulin level sends signals to the brain that your body is hungry.

Metabolic syndrome promotes coronary heart disease through several mechanisms. It increases the thrombogenicity of circulating blood, in part by raising plasminogen activator type 1 and adipokine levels, and it causes endothelial dysfunction. [14] Metabolic syndrome may also increase cardiovascular risks by increasing arterial stiffness. [15] Additional mechanisms include oxidative stress, [16] which has been associated with numerous components of metabolic syndrome. [17]
When a blood pressure reading is taken, the higher number represents the systolic pressure and the lower number represents the diastolic pressure. For example: 120/80 (120 over 80) in an adult means that the systolic pressure is 120 and the diastolic pressure is 80. As kids grow, their blood pressure increases from a systolic pressure of about 70–90 (as babies) to adult values (when they're teens).

Hypertensive urgencies, where asymptomatic blood pressure is more than 180/110 mm Hg, without organ damage, and emergencies, where organs are damaged and blood pressure measurements can be higher than 180/120 mm Hg, must be treated immediately. They may require hospitalization so that intravenous medications can be given and monitored because, if untreated, they can quickly result in organ damage.
The word diabetes (/ˌdaɪ.əˈbiːtiːz/ or /ˌdaɪ.əˈbiːtɪs/) comes from Latin diabētēs, which in turn comes from Ancient Greek διαβήτης (diabētēs), which literally means "a passer through; a siphon".[111] Ancient Greek physician Aretaeus of Cappadocia (fl. 1st century CE) used that word, with the intended meaning "excessive discharge of urine", as the name for the disease.[112][113] Ultimately, the word comes from Greek διαβαίνειν (diabainein), meaning "to pass through,"[111] which is composed of δια- (dia-), meaning "through" and βαίνειν (bainein), meaning "to go".[112] The word "diabetes" is first recorded in English, in the form diabete, in a medical text written around 1425.
The good news is that if you suspect you might have metabolic damage there are real answers and solutions and even tests to tell you what is going wrong in your body.  For those looking to get answers on how to fix metabolism problems and metabolic damage we have created a FREE  3 part Metabolic Repair Video Course that walks you through all the steps.  From how to get the correct tests to a done for you comprehensive metabolism assessment we cover it all in the course.  The course will teach you:
Because some medications, such as over-the-counter cold medicines, pain medications, antidepressants, birth control pills and others, can raise your blood pressure, it might be a good idea to bring a list of medications and supplements you take to your doctor's appointment. Don't stop taking any prescription medications that you think may affect your blood pressure without your doctor's advice.

The body obtains glucose from three main sources: the intestinal absorption of food; the breakdown of glycogen (glycogenolysis), the storage form of glucose found in the liver; and gluconeogenesis, the generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate substrates in the body.[60] Insulin plays a critical role in balancing glucose levels in the body. Insulin can inhibit the breakdown of glycogen or the process of gluconeogenesis, it can stimulate the transport of glucose into fat and muscle cells, and it can stimulate the storage of glucose in the form of glycogen.[60]
A person who weighed 180 pounds who diets down to 150 pounds burns significantly less energy than another person of the same height who also weighs 150 pounds who did not diet. Something about dieting causes an exaggerated slow down in metabolic rate that goes beyond what would be predicted based on tissue loss. And, as pointed out previously, this comes along with strong and unrelenting biological sensations to seek food. That is a recipe for compensatory weight regain.
Lifestyle changes and medications can lower blood pressure and decrease the risk of health complications.[8] Lifestyle changes include weight loss, physical exercise, decreased salt intake, reducing alcohol intake, and a healthy diet.[5] If lifestyle changes are not sufficient then blood pressure medications are used.[8] Up to three medications can control blood pressure in 90% of people.[5] The treatment of moderately high arterial blood pressure (defined as >160/100 mmHg) with medications is associated with an improved life expectancy.[14] The effect of treatment of blood pressure between 130/80 mmHg and 160/100 mmHg is less clear, with some reviews finding benefit[7][15][16] and others finding unclear benefit.[17][18][19] High blood pressure affects between 16 and 37% of the population globally.[5] In 2010 hypertension was believed to have been a factor in 18% of all deaths (9.4 million globally).[9]
If you're short on time but still want to fit in an effective training session—especially if your goal is fat burn—metabolic resistance training (MRT) is tough to beat. With this training style, the goal is to maximize caloric expenditure while also increasing your metabolic rate. There are many different ways to structure an MRT session, but generally speaking, circuit training lends itself well to this approach.
Most doctors do not make a final diagnosis of high blood pressure until they measure your blood pressure several times (at least 2 blood pressure readings on 3 different days). Some doctors ask their patients to wear a portable machine that measures their blood pressure over the course of several days. This machine may help the doctor find out whether a patient has true high blood pressure or what is known as “white-coat hypertension.” White-coat hypertension is a condition in which a patient’s blood pressure rises during a visit to a doctor when anxiety and stress probably play a role.
Blood pressure rises and falls during the day depending on a person's level of activity and physical and emotional stress. Largely controlled by the autonomic nervous system (the part of the nervous system that controls involuntary actions), BP is also affected by several different hormones, including angiotensin II, aldosterone and catecholamines.

Nerve damage from diabetes is called diabetic neuropathy and is also caused by disease of small blood vessels. In essence, the blood flow to the nerves is limited, leaving the nerves without blood flow, and they get damaged or die as a result (a term known as ischemia). Symptoms of diabetic nerve damage include numbness, burning, and aching of the feet and lower extremities. When the nerve disease causes a complete loss of sensation in the feet, patients may not be aware of injuries to the feet, and fail to properly protect them. Shoes or other protection should be worn as much as possible. Seemingly minor skin injuries should be attended to promptly to avoid serious infections. Because of poor blood circulation, diabetic foot injuries may not heal. Sometimes, minor foot injuries can lead to serious infection, ulcers, and even gangrene, necessitating surgical amputation of toes, feet, and other infected parts.
In most people with established essential hypertension, increased resistance to blood flow (total peripheral resistance) accounts for the high pressure while cardiac output remains normal.[52] There is evidence that some younger people with prehypertension or 'borderline hypertension' have high cardiac output, an elevated heart rate and normal peripheral resistance, termed hyperkinetic borderline hypertension.[53] These individuals develop the typical features of established essential hypertension in later life as their cardiac output falls and peripheral resistance rises with age.[53] Whether this pattern is typical of all people who ultimately develop hypertension is disputed.[54] The increased peripheral resistance in established hypertension is mainly attributable to structural narrowing of small arteries and arterioles,[55] although a reduction in the number or density of capillaries may also contribute.[56]

Hypertension is the most important preventable risk factor for premature death worldwide.[149] It increases the risk of ischemic heart disease,[150] strokes,[23] peripheral vascular disease,[151] and other cardiovascular diseases, including heart failure, aortic aneurysms, diffuse atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease, atrial fibrillation, and pulmonary embolism.[11][23] Hypertension is also a risk factor for cognitive impairment and dementia.[23] Other complications include hypertensive retinopathy and hypertensive nephropathy.[27]
Insulin is vital to patients with type 1 diabetes - they cannot live without a source of exogenous insulin. Without insulin, patients with type 1 diabetes develop severely elevated blood sugar levels. This leads to increased urine glucose, which in turn leads to excessive loss of fluid and electrolytes in the urine. Lack of insulin also causes the inability to store fat and protein along with breakdown of existing fat and protein stores. This dysregulation, results in the process of ketosis and the release of ketones into the blood. Ketones turn the blood acidic, a condition called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Without prompt medical treatment, patients with diabetic ketoacidosis can rapidly go into shock, coma, and even death may result.
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