^ Jump up to: a b c Vemuri VK, Janero DR, Makriyannis A (March 2008). "Pharmacotherapeutic targeting of the endocannabinoid signaling system: drugs for obesity and the metabolic syndrome". Physiology & Behavior. 93 (4–5): 671–86. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2007.11.012. PMC 3681125. PMID 18155257. The etiology of many appetitive disorders is characterized by a pathogenic component of reward-supported craving, be it for substances of abuse (including alcohol and nicotine) or food. Such maladies affect large numbers of people as prevalent socioeconomic and healthcare burdens. Yet in most instances drugs for their safe and effective pharmacotherapeutic management are lacking despite the attendant medical needs, collateral adverse physical and psychological effects, and enormous global market potential. The endocannabinoid signaling system plays a critical role in motivational homeostasis as a conduit for reward stimuli and a positive modulator of brain reward circuits. Endocannabinoid-system hyperactivity through CB1 receptor transmission is considered contributory to a range of appetitive disorders and, hence, is a major focus of contemporary pharmaceutical research.
Serum creatinine is measured to assess for the presence of kidney disease, which can be either the cause or the result of hypertension. Serum creatinine alone may overestimate glomerular filtration rate and recent guidelines advocate the use of predictive equations such as the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).[27] eGFR can also provide a baseline measurement of kidney function that can be used to monitor for side effects of certain anti-hypertensive drugs on kidney function. Additionally, testing of urine samples for protein is used as a secondary indicator of kidney disease. Electrocardiogram (EKG/ECG) testing is done to check for evidence that the heart is under strain from high blood pressure. It may also show whether there is thickening of the heart muscle (left ventricular hypertrophy) or whether the heart has experienced a prior minor disturbance such as a silent heart attack. A chest X-ray or an echocardiogram may also be performed to look for signs of heart enlargement or damage to the heart.[23]

These diabetes complications are related to blood vessel diseases and are generally classified into small vessel disease, such as those involving the eyes, kidneys and nerves (microvascular disease), and large vessel disease involving the heart and blood vessels (macrovascular disease). Diabetes accelerates hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis) of the larger blood vessels, leading to coronary heart disease (angina or heart attack), strokes, and pain in the lower extremities because of lack of blood supply (claudication).

When lifestyle changes aren't enough, a child take prescription medicines to treat individual risk factors. So, kids with high blood pressure might be put on antihypertension drugs. Others with high LDL cholesterol might be prescribed statins or other lipid-lowering drugs. Children with high blood sugar, who are on the brink of developing diabetes, may get medicine to decrease insulin resistance.
 Anteroposterior x-ray from a 28-year old woman who presented with congestive heart failure secondary to her chronic hypertension, or high blood pressure. The enlarged cardiac silhouette on this image is due to congestive heart failure due to the effects of chronic high blood pressure on the left ventricle. The heart then becomes enlarged, and fluid accumulates in the lungs, known as pulmonary congestion.

Hypertension defined as elevated blood pressure over several visits affects 1% to 5% of children and adolescents and is associated with long term risks of ill-health.[89] Blood pressure rises with age in childhood and, in children, hypertension is defined as an average systolic or diastolic blood pressure on three or more occasions equal or higher than the 95th percentile appropriate for the sex, age and height of the child. High blood pressure must be confirmed on repeated visits however before characterizing a child as having hypertension.[89] Prehypertension in children has been defined as average systolic or diastolic blood pressure that is greater than or equal to the 90th percentile, but less than the 95th percentile.[89] In adolescents, it has been proposed that hypertension and pre-hypertension are diagnosed and classified using the same criteria as in adults.[89]
Hypertension is one of the most common worldwide diseases afflicting humans and is a major risk factor for stroke, myocardial infarction, vascular disease, and chronic kidney disease. Despite extensive research over the past several decades, the etiology of most cases of adult hypertension is still unknown, and control of blood pressure is suboptimal in the general population. Due to the associated morbidity and mortality and cost to society, preventing and treating hypertension is an important public health challenge. Fortunately, recent advances and trials in hypertension research are leading to an increased understanding of the pathophysiology of hypertension and the promise for novel pharmacologic and interventional treatments for this widespread disease.
It has not been contested that cardiovascular risk factors tend to cluster together; the matter of contention has been the assertion that the metabolic syndrome is anything more than the sum of its constituent parts. Phenotypic heterogeneity (for example, represented by variation in metabolic syndrome factor combinations among individuals with metabolic syndrome) has fueled that debate. However, more recent evidence suggests that common triggers (for example, excessive sugar-intake in the environment of overabundant food) can contribute to the development of multiple metabolic abnormalities at the same time, supporting the commonality of the energy utilization and storage pathways in metabolic syndrome.
Metabolic syndrome is a burgeoning global problem. Approximately one fourth of the adult European population is estimated to have metabolic syndrome, with a similar prevalence in Latin America. [25] It is also considered an emerging epidemic in developing East Asian countries, including China, Japan, and Korea. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in East Asia may range from 8-13% in men and from 2-18% in women, depending on the population and definitions used. [29, 30, 31]

Metabolic syndrome promotes coronary heart disease through several mechanisms. It increases the thrombogenicity of circulating blood, in part by raising plasminogen activator type 1 and adipokine levels, and it causes endothelial dysfunction. [14] Metabolic syndrome may also increase cardiovascular risks by increasing arterial stiffness. [15] Additional mechanisms include oxidative stress, [16] which has been associated with numerous components of metabolic syndrome. [17]
Gary Edward Sander, MD, PhD, FACC, FAHA, FACP, FASH is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Chemical Society, American College of Cardiology, American College of Chest Physicians, American College of Physicians, American Federation for Clinical Research, American Federation for Medical Research, American Heart Association, American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, American Society of Hypertension, American Thoracic Society, Heart Failure Society of America, National Lipid Association, Southern Society for Clinical Investigation

^ Jump up to: a b Go, AS; Bauman, M; King, SM; Fonarow, GC; Lawrence, W; Williams, KA; Sanchez, E (15 November 2013). "An Effective Approach to High Blood Pressure Control: A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association, the American College of Cardiology, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention". Hypertension. 63 (4): 878–85. doi:10.1161/HYP.0000000000000003. PMID 24243703. Archived from the original on 20 November 2013. Retrieved 20 November 2013.

When you have diabetes, it’s important to avoid eating many packaged, processed snacks such as cookies, chips, cake, granola bars, and the like, in lieu of fresh, whole foods, like fiber-rich fruits, veggies, and whole grains. (27) Eating foods high in fiber can help keep blood sugar levels steady and fill you up, potentially promoting weight loss and improving insulin sensitivity. (28) https://i.vimeocdn.com/portrait/4282345_120x120.jpg

^ Qaseem, A; Wilt, TJ; Rich, R; Humphrey, LL; Frost, J; Forciea, MA; Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians and the Commission on Health of the Public and Science of the American Academy of Family, Physicians. (21 March 2017). "Pharmacologic Treatment of Hypertension in Adults Aged 60 Years or Older to Higher Versus Lower Blood Pressure Targets: A Clinical Practice Guideline From the American College of Physicians and the American Academy of Family Physicians". Annals of Internal Medicine. 166 (6): 430–437. doi:10.7326/m16-1785. PMID 28135725.

“When you eat sugary foods, your blood sugar levels rise and your pancreas releases insulin to move the sugar from your blood into your cells to be used or stored,” explains Chere Bork, RDN, a nutritionist and life coach in the Minneapolis–St. Paul area. But if your body is continuously exposed to high levels of insulin, Bork says, “the receptor cells become inefficient and resistant to the effects of insulin,” and this leaves blood glucose levels elevated. It is insulin resistance that promotes the high cholesterol, high glucose, and high blood pressure of metabolic syndrome — also known as insulin resistance syndrome.
It has not been contested that cardiovascular risk factors tend to cluster together; the matter of contention has been the assertion that the metabolic syndrome is anything more than the sum of its constituent parts. Phenotypic heterogeneity (for example, represented by variation in metabolic syndrome factor combinations among individuals with metabolic syndrome) has fueled that debate. However, more recent evidence suggests that common triggers (for example, excessive sugar-intake in the environment of overabundant food) can contribute to the development of multiple metabolic abnormalities at the same time, supporting the commonality of the energy utilization and storage pathways in metabolic syndrome.

Doctors may also prescribe medications to lower blood pressure, control cholesterol or help you lose weight. Insulin sensitizers like Glucophage (Metformin) may be prescribed to help your body use insulin more effectively. It lowers blood sugar, which also seems to help lower cholesterol and triglycerides as well as decreasing appetite. The side effects of Metformin (often temporary) include nausea, stomach pain, bloating and diarrhea. A more serious side effect, lactic acidosis, can affect those with kidney or liver disease, severe heart failure or a history of alcohol abuse and is potentially, though rarely, fatal. Aspirin therapy is often given to help reduce risk of heart attack and stroke.

Eating mindfully. A child who learns to see food as fuel and not emotional compensation can start to make better choices at mealtime — for example, selecting complex carbs instead of simple carbs (whole-grain instead of white bread, brown rice instead of white); getting more fiber with beans, fruits, and vegetables; choosing "healthy" fats like olive oil and nuts; and avoiding too many empty calories from soda and sweets.

Adapted from:  Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, et al, and the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; National High Blood Pressure Education Program Coordinating Committee. Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Hypertension. Dec 2003;42(6):1206-52. [2]
A superset is two exercises performed in succession without rest. One of the best metabolic supersets involves training agonist/antagonist muscle groups (i.e. back/chest, biceps/triceps, quads/hamstrings, etc). This technique, commonly known as paired-set training, has been shown to increase EPOC and result in greater total energy expenditure when compared to traditional strength training protocols.[7]
Creatinine is a chemical waste molecule that is generated from muscle metabolism. Creatinine is produced from creatine, a molecule of major importance for energy production in muscles. Creatinine has been found to be a fairly reliable indicator of kidney function. As the kidneys become impaired the creatinine level in the blood will rise. Normal levels of creatinine in the blood vary from gender and age of the individual.
Nerve damage from diabetes is called diabetic neuropathy and is also caused by disease of small blood vessels. In essence, the blood flow to the nerves is limited, leaving the nerves without blood flow, and they get damaged or die as a result (a term known as ischemia). Symptoms of diabetic nerve damage include numbness, burning, and aching of the feet and lower extremities. When the nerve disease causes a complete loss of sensation in the feet, patients may not be aware of injuries to the feet, and fail to properly protect them. Shoes or other protection should be worn as much as possible. Seemingly minor skin injuries should be attended to promptly to avoid serious infections. Because of poor blood circulation, diabetic foot injuries may not heal. Sometimes, minor foot injuries can lead to serious infection, ulcers, and even gangrene, necessitating surgical amputation of toes, feet, and other infected parts.
Current strategies for controlling cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, such as high blood pressure and high cholesterol, are not widely used as standard practice. CDC developed this guide to provide health professionals with evidence-based strategies for effective and sustainable CVD prevention, including health and economic impact and potential for reducing health disparities.
One hypothesis is that prehypertension results in oxidation of lipids such as arachidonic acid that leads to the formation of isoketals or isolevuglandins, which function as neoantigens, which are then presented to T cells, leading to T-cell activation and infiltration of critical organs (eg, kidney, vasculature). [16] This results in persistent or severe hypertension and end organ damage. Sympathetic nervous system activation and noradrenergic stimuli have also been shown to promote T-lymphocyte activation and infiltration and contribute to the pathophysiology of hypertension. [17, 18, 19]
Ariana Shakibinia decided to study public health in large part because she lives with T1D. She had always been interested in public policy, but she says living with this disease has made her more vested in the healthcare conversation. “I am living with what is essentially a pre-existing condition. I’m fortunate enough to have good health insurance, but it makes the potential financial burden of T1D management much more visible and relatable.”

When the glucose concentration in the blood remains high over time, the kidneys will reach a threshold of reabsorption, and glucose will be excreted in the urine (glycosuria).[62] This increases the osmotic pressure of the urine and inhibits reabsorption of water by the kidney, resulting in increased urine production (polyuria) and increased fluid loss. Lost blood volume will be replaced osmotically from water held in body cells and other body compartments, causing dehydration and increased thirst (polydipsia).[60]
A study published in the Journal of the American College of Nutrition in April 1999 showed this effect. This study looked at a group of obese individuals who were put on a very low calorie diet and assigned to one of two exercise regimes. One group did aerobic exercise (walking, biking, or jogging four times per week) while the second group did resistance training three times per week and no aerobic exercise.
What are symptoms of type 2 diabetes in children? Type 2 diabetes is becoming increasingly common in children, and this is linked to a rise in obesity. However, the condition can be difficult to detect in children because it develops gradually. Symptoms, treatment, and prevention of type 2 diabetes are similar in children and adults. Learn more here. Read now
The classic oral glucose tolerance test measures blood glucose levels five times over a period of three hours. Some physicians simply get a baseline blood sample followed by a sample two hours after drinking the glucose solution. In a person without diabetes, the glucose levels rise and then fall quickly. In someone with diabetes, glucose levels rise higher than normal and fail to come back down as fast.
Blood pressure is the measurement of the pressure or force of blood pushing against blood vessel walls. In hypertension (high blood pressure), the pressure against the blood vessel walls is consistently too high. High blood pressure is often called the “silent killer” because you may not be aware that anything is wrong, but the damage is occurring within your body.
When you have type 2 diabetes, your cells don't get enough glucose, which may cause you to lose weight. Also, if you are urinating more frequently because of uncontrolled diabetes, you may lose more calories and water, resulting in weight loss, says Daniel Einhorn, MD, medical director of the Scripps Whittier Diabetes Institute and clinical professor of medicine at the University of California in San Diego.
Development of metabolic syndrome depends on distribution as well as amount of fat. Excess fat in the abdomen (called apple shape), particularly when it results in a high waist-to-hip ratio (reflecting a relatively low muscle-to-fat mass ratio), increases risk. The syndrome is less common among people who have excess subcutaneous fat around the hips (called pear shape) and a low waist-to-hip ratio (reflecting a higher muscle-to-fat mass ratio). https://www.healthshare.com.au/storage/avatars/patricia-durning.jpg.60x60_q85_box-0,0,100,100.jpg

^ Feinman, R. D; Pogozelski, W. K; Astrup, A; Bernstein, R. K; Fine, E. J; Westman, E. C; Accurso, A; Frassetto, L; Gower, B. A; McFarlane, S. I; Nielsen, J. V; Krarup, T; Saslow, L; Roth, K. S; Vernon, M. C; Volek, J. S; Wilshire, G. B; Dahlqvist, A; Sundberg, R; Childers, A; Morrison, K; Manninen, A. H; Dashti, H. M; Wood, R. J; Wortman, J; Worm, N (2015). "Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management: Critical review and evidence base". Nutrition. 31 (1): 1–13. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2014.06.011. PMID 25287761.
When you are first diagnosed with hypertension, you can expect a period of time when you will be seeing your doctor more often than usual. You will need some baseline testing to look for an underlying cause for your hypertension, and you will probably need several medical visits to determine whether lifestyle adjustments or medication will be effective in helping you reach your optimal blood pressure.
The first line of treatment for hypertension is lifestyle changes, including dietary changes, physical exercise, and weight loss. Though these have all been recommended in scientific advisories,[111] a Cochrane systematic review found no evidence for effects of weight loss diets on death, long-term complications or adverse events in persons with hypertension.[112] The review did find a decrease in blood pressure.[112] Their potential effectiveness is similar to and at times exceeds a single medication.[12] If hypertension is high enough to justify immediate use of medications, lifestyle changes are still recommended in conjunction with medication.
Type 1 and type 2 diabetes were identified as separate conditions for the first time by the Indian physicians Sushruta and Charaka in 400–500 CE with type 1 associated with youth and type 2 with being overweight.[108] The term "mellitus" or "from honey" was added by the Briton John Rolle in the late 1700s to separate the condition from diabetes insipidus, which is also associated with frequent urination.[108] Effective treatment was not developed until the early part of the 20th century, when Canadians Frederick Banting and Charles Herbert Best isolated and purified insulin in 1921 and 1922.[108] This was followed by the development of the long-acting insulin NPH in the 1940s.[108]
Mind/Body: It is important to attend to stress in positive ways. Rather than using alcohol, tobacco, or television, try breathing exercises. They are simple, free, and right under your nose. Dr. Weil has compiled ten ways to reduce stress and promote relaxation, calm and peace within yourself. Some techniques take practice, and most require some commitment on your part to achieve results. However, the results are well worth the effort.

Dr Jacomien de Villiers qualified as a specialist physician at the University of Pretoria in 1995. She worked at various clinics at the Department of Internal Medicine, Steve Biko Hospital, these include General Internal Medicine, Hypertension, Diabetes and Cardiology. She has run a private practice since 2001, as well as a consultant post at the Endocrine Clinic of Steve Biko Hospital.