Regarding age, data shows that for each decade after 40 years of age regardless of weight there is an increase in incidence of diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes in persons 65 years of age and older is around 25%. Type 2 diabetes is also more common in certain ethnic groups. Compared with a 7% prevalence in non-Hispanic Caucasians, the prevalence in Asian Americans is estimated to be 8.0%, in Hispanics 13%, in blacks around 12.3%, and in certain Native American communities 20% to 50%. Finally, diabetes occurs much more frequently in women with a prior history of diabetes that develops during pregnancy (gestational diabetes).
^ Jump up to: a b Petzold A, Solimena M, Knoch KP (October 2015). "Mechanisms of Beta Cell Dysfunction Associated With Viral Infection". Current Diabetes Reports (Review). 15 (10): 73. doi:10.1007/s11892-015-0654-x. PMC 4539350. PMID 26280364. So far, none of the hypotheses accounting for virus-induced beta cell autoimmunity has been supported by stringent evidence in humans, and the involvement of several mechanisms rather than just one is also plausible.
In most people, high blood pressure rarely causes any signs or symptoms.  It's possible to have it for many years without realizing it. Often, it only becomes apparent during a routine health checkup. Rarely, even when levels are life-threatening, high blood pressure may cause only a few symptoms, such as headaches, dizziness, or frequent nosebleeds.

The symptoms similar to symptoms of patients with hypertensive crisis are discussed in medieval Persian medical texts in the chapter of "fullness disease".[155] The symptoms include headache, heaviness in the head, sluggish movements, general redness and warm to touch feel of the body, prominent, distended and tense vessels, fullness of the pulse, distension of the skin, coloured and dense urine, loss of appetite, weak eyesight, impairment of thinking, yawning, drowsiness, vascular rupture, and hemorrhagic stroke.[156] Fullness disease was presumed to be due to an excessive amount of blood within the blood vessels.


Blood pressure was traditionally measured using a stethoscope and a blood pressure cuff (called a sphygmomanometer), a device that includes a cuff, a bulb, and a pressure dial that reads the pressure in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). This is still considered the best method but, more commonly, devices that combine a blood pressure cuff with electronic sensors are used to measure blood pressure. http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-du4BiwBwloo/UbfEdfaxaSI/AAAAAAAABa4/ikJjD8ruIkw/s1600/claire-kerslake-graphic-for-renew-promo-post-with-logo-final.jpg
Formal guidelines for measuring blood pressure state that it should be measured in a quiet, warm environment after you have been sitting restfully for at least five minutes. You should not have had coffee or used tobacco for at least 30 minutes. At least two blood pressure measurements should be taken under these conditions at least five minutes apart. This should be repeated until the measurements agree to within 5 mmHg.
Metabolic syndrome is believed to develop due to insulin resistance. Insulin is a hormone that is produced by the pancreas (an organ located near stomach). It helps blood sugar enter cells, where it is used for energy. With insulin resistance, the body fails to recognize the insulin that is produced, causing the sugar to accumulate in the blood instead of being absorbed into other cells. Because blood sugar levels remain high, the pancreas keeps producing more and more insulin, leading to high insulin levels. While blood sugar levels are not high enough to be classified as diabetes, they do increase the risk of developing serious health problems.
The term "diabetes" or "to pass through" was first used in 230 BCE by the Greek Apollonius of Memphis.[108] The disease was considered rare during the time of the Roman empire, with Galen commenting he had only seen two cases during his career.[108] This is possibly due to the diet and lifestyle of the ancients, or because the clinical symptoms were observed during the advanced stage of the disease. Galen named the disease "diarrhea of the urine" (diarrhea urinosa).[110]
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common but frequently undiagnosed sleep-related breathing disorder defined as an average of at least 10 apneic and hypopenic episodes per sleep hour, which leads to excessive daytime sleepiness. Multiple studies have shown OSA to be an independent risk factor for the development of essential hypertension, even after adjusting for age, gender, and degree of obesity.
Daily exercise: Being fit is a key part of blood pressure control. All kids with hypertension should exercise and play sports for 1 hour each day — with some activity (like jogging) most days and higher levels of activity (like running) 3 times a week. Usually, exercise is restricted only when hypertension is very severe. Kids with severe hypertension should not do any weight- or power-lifting, bodybuilding, or strength training until their blood pressure is under control and a doctor says it's OK.
Globally, an estimated 26% of the world’s population (972 million people) has hypertension, and the prevalence is expected to increase to 29% by 2025, driven largely by increases in economically developing nations. [34] The high prevalence of hypertension exacts a tremendous public health burden. As a primary contributor to heart disease and stroke, the first and third leading causes of death worldwide, respectively, high blood pressure was the top modifiable risk factor for disability adjusted life-years lost worldwide in 2013. [35, 36]
Lipase inhibitors can play a role. These are foods that have action in decreasing the digestion of fats so they move out of the body instead of getting absorbed. Since the digestive tract is the major place where POPs are both removed from the body and taken into the body, doing what is possible to NOT allow fat soluble compounds reentry is important. Some common lipase inhibitors include green tea, oolong tea, mate tea, and ginger root. https://i.ytimg.com/vi/8AdXhRXuQLU/hqdefault.jpg?sqp
To explain what hemoglobin A1c is, think in simple terms. Sugar sticks, and when it's around for a long time, it's harder to get it off. In the body, sugar sticks too, particularly to proteins. The red blood cells that circulate in the body live for about three months before they die off. When sugar sticks to these hemoglobin proteins in these cells, it is known as glycosylated hemoglobin or hemoglobin A1c (HBA1c). Measurement of HBA1c gives us an idea of how much sugar is present in the bloodstream for the preceding three months. In most labs, the normal range is 4%-5.9 %. In poorly controlled diabetes, its 8.0% or above, and in well controlled patients it's less than 7.0% (optimal is <6.5%). The benefits of measuring A1c is that is gives a more reasonable and stable view of what's happening over the course of time (three months), and the value does not vary as much as finger stick blood sugar measurements. There is a direct correlation between A1c levels and average blood sugar levels as follows.
Kidney damage from diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy. The onset of kidney disease and its progression is extremely variable. Initially, diseased small blood vessels in the kidneys cause the leakage of protein in the urine. Later on, the kidneys lose their ability to cleanse and filter blood. The accumulation of toxic waste products in the blood leads to the need for dialysis. Dialysis involves using a machine that serves the function of the kidney by filtering and cleaning the blood. In patients who do not want to undergo chronic dialysis, kidney transplantation can be considered. https://www.lorilynnsmith.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/2012-04-30_2116.png
Jackson Bloore is a nationally published fitness model, certified personal trainer, and owner of Action Jackson Fitness. He was named by San Francisco Magazine as “Best Personal Trainer for Abs” in 2015 and has been featured on the cover of six fitness products for Perfect Fitness and has modeled for Nike, ESPN, Men's Health, and Men's Fitness among others.
Resistant hypertension is defined as high blood pressure that remains above a target level, in spite of being prescribed three or more antihypertensive drugs simultaneously with different mechanisms of action.[131] Failing to take the prescribed drugs, is an important cause of resistant hypertension.[132] Resistant hypertension may also result from chronically high activity of the autonomic nervous system, an effect known as "neurogenic hypertension".[133] Electrical therapies that stimulate the baroreflex are being studied as an option for lowering blood pressure in people in this situation.[134]
^ Jump up to: a b Brook RD, Appel LJ, Rubenfire M, Ogedegbe G, Bisognano JD, Elliott WJ, Fuchs FD, Hughes JW, Lackland DT, Staffileno BA, Townsend RR, Rajagopalan S, American Heart Association Professional Education Committee of the Council for High Blood Pressure Research, Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing, Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, and Council on Nutrition, Physical, Activity (Jun 2013). "Beyond medications and diet: alternative approaches to lowering blood pressure: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association". Hypertension. 61 (6): 1360–83. doi:10.1161/HYP.0b013e318293645f. PMID 23608661.
The exact mechanisms of the complex pathways of metabolic syndrome are under investigation. The pathophysiology is very complex and has been only partially elucidated. Most patients are older, obese, sedentary, and have a degree of insulin resistance. Stress can also be a contributing factor. The most important risk factors are diet (particularly sugar-sweetened beverage consumption),[6] genetics,[7][8][9][10] aging, sedentary behavior[11] or low physical activity,[12][13] disrupted chronobiology/sleep,[14] mood disorders/psychotropic medication use,[15][16] and excessive alcohol use.[17]

Hypoglycemia means abnormally low blood sugar (glucose). In patients with diabetes, the most common cause of low blood sugar is excessive use of insulin or other glucose-lowering medications, to lower the blood sugar level in diabetic patients in the presence of a delayed or absent meal. When low blood sugar levels occur because of too much insulin, it is called an insulin reaction. Sometimes, low blood sugar can be the result of an insufficient caloric intake or sudden excessive physical exertion.


The information provided does not constitute a diagnosis of your condition. You should consult a medical practitioner or other appropriate health care professional for a physical exmanication, diagnosis and formal advice. Health24 and the expert accept no responsibility or liability for any damage or personal harm you may suffer resulting from making use of this content.
Maddy Arnstein has lived with T1D for over 50 years. She became involved with JDRF when she saw the dramatic difference technologies like the insulin pump could have on her life. Maddy was quickly drawn to advocacy—initially to help secure continued renewal of funding for the Special Diabetes Program (SDP). But once she started using a continuous glucose monitor, she dedicated herself to fighting for Medicare coverage.
Nerve damage from diabetes is called diabetic neuropathy and is also caused by disease of small blood vessels. In essence, the blood flow to the nerves is limited, leaving the nerves without blood flow, and they get damaged or die as a result (a term known as ischemia). Symptoms of diabetic nerve damage include numbness, burning, and aching of the feet and lower extremities. When the nerve disease causes a complete loss of sensation in the feet, patients may not be aware of injuries to the feet, and fail to properly protect them. Shoes or other protection should be worn as much as possible. Seemingly minor skin injuries should be attended to promptly to avoid serious infections. Because of poor blood circulation, diabetic foot injuries may not heal. Sometimes, minor foot injuries can lead to serious infection, ulcers, and even gangrene, necessitating surgical amputation of toes, feet, and other infected parts.
A 2018 study suggested that three types should be abandoned as too simplistic.[57] It classified diabetes into five subgroups, with what is typically described as type 1 and autoimmune late-onset diabetes categorized as one group, whereas type 2 encompasses four categories. This is hoped to improve diabetes treatment by tailoring it more specifically to the subgroups.[58]
As of 2014, approximately one billion adults or ~22% of the population of the world have hypertension.[137] It is slightly more frequent in men,[137] in those of low socioeconomic status,[6] and it becomes more common with age.[6] It is common in high, medium, and low income countries.[137][138] In 2004 rates of high blood pressure were highest in Africa, (30% for both sexes) and lowest in the Americas (18% for both sexes). Rates also vary markedly within regions with rates as low as 3.4% (men) and 6.8% (women) in rural India and as high as 68.9% (men) and 72.5% (women) in Poland.[139] Rates in Africa were about 45% in 2016.[140]

Okay, you've suffered through the particulars and are sufficiently MRT-educated. Let's get to the good stuff: three tried-and-true MRT strategies guaranteed to help strip away stubborn fat and heighten acid-buffering ability. You can stick with one strategy for a given timeframe or periodize strategies from one week to the next. Regardless of what you decide to do, it's best to insert an "unloading microcycle" (one week of light weight) every fourth week or so to avoid the potential for overtraining. During the unloading cycle, reduce the effort expended so you're not substantially challenging your muscles on the last few reps of each set (aim for about a 7 on an RPE scale of 1-10). As a general rule, limit metabolic training cycles to a maximum of about 8 weeks. Any longer and you risk compromising muscular gains.
One hypothesis is that prehypertension results in oxidation of lipids such as arachidonic acid that leads to the formation of isoketals or isolevuglandins, which function as neoantigens, which are then presented to T cells, leading to T-cell activation and infiltration of critical organs (eg, kidney, vasculature). [16] This results in persistent or severe hypertension and end organ damage. Sympathetic nervous system activation and noradrenergic stimuli have also been shown to promote T-lymphocyte activation and infiltration and contribute to the pathophysiology of hypertension. [17, 18, 19]
Recent research indicates prolonged chronic stress can contribute to metabolic syndrome by disrupting the hormonal balance of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis).[23] A dysfunctional HPA-axis causes high cortisol levels to circulate, which results in raising glucose and insulin levels, which in turn cause insulin-mediated effects on adipose tissue, ultimately promoting visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension, with direct effects on the bone, causing "low turnover" osteoporosis.[24] HPA-axis dysfunction may explain the reported risk indication of abdominal obesity to cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes and stroke.[25] Psychosocial stress is also linked to heart disease.[26]
Development of metabolic syndrome depends on distribution as well as amount of fat. Excess fat in the abdomen (called apple shape), particularly when it results in a high waist-to-hip ratio (reflecting a relatively low muscle-to-fat mass ratio), increases risk. The syndrome is less common among people who have excess subcutaneous fat around the hips (called pear shape) and a low waist-to-hip ratio (reflecting a higher muscle-to-fat mass ratio). https://www.healthshare.com.au/storage/avatars/patricia-durning.jpg.60x60_q85_box-0,0,100,100.jpg

^ Sattar N, Preiss D, Murray HM, Welsh P, Buckley BM, de Craen AJ, Seshasai SR, McMurray JJ, Freeman DJ, Jukema JW, Macfarlane PW, Packard CJ, Stott DJ, Westendorp RG, Shepherd J, Davis BR, Pressel SL, Marchioli R, Marfisi RM, Maggioni AP, Tavazzi L, Tognoni G, Kjekshus J, Pedersen TR, Cook TJ, Gotto AM, Clearfield MB, Downs JR, Nakamura H, Ohashi Y, Mizuno K, Ray KK, Ford I (February 2010). "Statins and risk of incident diabetes: a collaborative meta-analysis of randomised statin trials". Lancet. 375 (9716): 735–42. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61965-6. PMID 20167359.
The pressure generated by the beating heart forces the blood forward and stretches the elastic walls of the arteries. In between heartbeats, as the heart muscle relaxes, the arterial walls snap back to their original shape, moving the blood forward to the body’s tissues. With hypertension, the pressure in the arteries is high enough to eventually produce damage to the blood vessels. https://i.ytimg.com/vi/JRJ4JtAJahE/hqdefault.jpg?sqp

Adapted from:  Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, et al, and the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; National High Blood Pressure Education Program Coordinating Committee. Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Hypertension. Dec 2003;42(6):1206-52. [2]
In people aged 18 years or older hypertension is defined as either a systolic or a diastolic blood pressure measurement consistently higher than an accepted normal value (this is above 129 or 139 mmHg systolic, 89 mmHg diastolic depending on the guideline).[5][7] Other thresholds are used (135 mmHg systolic or 85 mmHg diastolic) if measurements are derived from 24-hour ambulatory or home monitoring.[79] Recent international hypertension guidelines have also created categories below the hypertensive range to indicate a continuum of risk with higher blood pressures in the normal range. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC7) published in 2003[27] uses the term prehypertension for blood pressure in the range 120–139 mmHg systolic or 80–89 mmHg diastolic, while European Society of Hypertension Guidelines (2007)[86] and British Hypertension Society (BHS) IV (2004)[87] use optimal, normal and high normal categories to subdivide pressures below 140 mmHg systolic and 90 mmHg diastolic. Hypertension is also sub-classified: JNC7 distinguishes hypertension stage I, hypertension stage II, and isolated systolic hypertension. Isolated systolic hypertension refers to elevated systolic pressure with normal diastolic pressure and is common in the elderly.[27] The ESH-ESC Guidelines (2007)[86] and BHS IV (2004)[87] additionally define a third stage (stage III hypertension) for people with systolic blood pressure exceeding 179 mmHg or a diastolic pressure over 109 mmHg. Hypertension is classified as "resistant" if medications do not reduce blood pressure to normal levels.[27] In November 2017, the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology published a joint guideline which updates the recommendations of the JNC7 report.[88]
Insulin is a fat storage hormone, it works to shuttle the sugar from your blood stream into your fat cells to store for later. Insulin has a number of other reproductive functions and has effects on skin health, cravings and the like. Insulin levels naturally increase after eating a meal that contains carbohydrates, dairy or protein. If you are insulin resistant then you can have an elevated level of insulin when you are fasting, or you can experience too much insulin release in response to those foods. This can trap your body in fat storage mode and inhibit fat loss.
Hypoglycemia means abnormally low blood sugar (glucose). In patients with diabetes, the most common cause of low blood sugar is excessive use of insulin or other glucose-lowering medications, to lower the blood sugar level in diabetic patients in the presence of a delayed or absent meal. When low blood sugar levels occur because of too much insulin, it is called an insulin reaction. Sometimes, low blood sugar can be the result of an insufficient caloric intake or sudden excessive physical exertion.
Emerging data suggest an important correlation between metabolic syndrome and risk of stroke. [58] Each of the components of metabolic syndrome has been associated with elevated stroke risk, and evidence demonstrates a relationship between the collective metabolic syndrome and risk of ischemic stroke. [59] Metabolic syndrome may also be linked to neuropathy beyond hyperglycemic mechanisms through inflammatory mediators. [60]
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