Blood pressure was traditionally measured using a stethoscope and a blood pressure cuff (called a sphygmomanometer), a device that includes a cuff, a bulb, and a pressure dial that reads the pressure in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). This is still considered the best method but, more commonly, devices that combine a blood pressure cuff with electronic sensors are used to measure blood pressure. http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-du4BiwBwloo/UbfEdfaxaSI/AAAAAAAABa4/ikJjD8ruIkw/s1600/claire-kerslake-graphic-for-renew-promo-post-with-logo-final.jpg
^ Pignone M, Alberts MJ, Colwell JA, Cushman M, Inzucchi SE, Mukherjee D, Rosenson RS, Williams CD, Wilson PW, Kirkman MS (June 2010). "Aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular events in people with diabetes: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association, a scientific statement of the American Heart Association, and an expert consensus document of the American College of Cardiology Foundation". Diabetes Care. 33 (6): 1395–402. doi:10.2337/dc10-0555. PMC 2875463. PMID 20508233.
Hypertension develops secondary to environmental factors, as well as multiple genes, whose inheritance appears to be complex. [12, 21] Furthermore, obesity, diabetes, and heart disease also have genetic components and contribute to hypertension. Epidemiological studies using twin data and data from Framingham Heart Study families reveal that BP has a substantial heritable component, ranging from 33-57%. [22, 23, 24]
Most conventional practitioners recommend that patients follow a healthy eating plan like the American Dietary Association (ADA) diet, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet or the Mediterranean Diet. All of these emphasize fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, while limiting unhealthy fats and promoting leaner protein foods like low-fat dairy and lean meats like chicken and fish.
Diabetes mellitus occurs throughout the world but is more common (especially type 2) in more developed countries. The greatest increase in rates has however been seen in low- and middle-income countries, where more than 80% of diabetic deaths occur. The fastest prevalence increase is expected to occur in Asia and Africa, where most people with diabetes will probably live in 2030. The increase in rates in developing countries follows the trend of urbanization and lifestyle changes, including increasingly sedentary lifestyles, less physically demanding work and the global nutrition transition, marked by increased intake of foods that are high energy-dense but nutrient-poor (often high in sugar and saturated fats, sometimes referred to as the "Western-style" diet). The global prevalence of diabetes might increase by 55% between 2013 and 2035.
Hypertension defined as elevated blood pressure over several visits affects 1% to 5% of children and adolescents and is associated with long term risks of ill-health. Blood pressure rises with age in childhood and, in children, hypertension is defined as an average systolic or diastolic blood pressure on three or more occasions equal or higher than the 95th percentile appropriate for the sex, age and height of the child. High blood pressure must be confirmed on repeated visits however before characterizing a child as having hypertension. Prehypertension in children has been defined as average systolic or diastolic blood pressure that is greater than or equal to the 90th percentile, but less than the 95th percentile. In adolescents, it has been proposed that hypertension and pre-hypertension are diagnosed and classified using the same criteria as in adults.
Diabetes is a chronic, metabolic disease characterized by elevated levels of blood glucose (or blood sugar), which leads over time to serious damage to the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, and nerves. The most common is type 2 diabetes, usually in adults, which occurs when the body becomes resistant to insulin or doesn't make enough insulin. In the past three decades the prevalence of type 2 diabetes has risen dramatically in countries of all income levels. Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin by itself. For people living with diabetes, access to affordable treatment, including insulin, is critical to their survival. There is a globally agreed target to halt the rise in diabetes and obesity by 2025.
Family or personal history. Your risk increases if you have prediabetes — a precursor to type 2 diabetes — or if a close family member, such as a parent or sibling, has type 2 diabetes. You're also at greater risk if you had gestational diabetes during a previous pregnancy, if you delivered a very large baby or if you had an unexplained stillbirth.
Metabolic syndrome is increasing in prevalence, paralleling an increasing epidemic of obesity. In the United States, where almost two thirds of the population is overweight or obese, more than one fourth of the population meets diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome.  In the United States, data from a 1999-2000 survey showed that the age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome among adults aged 20 years or older had risen from 27% (data from 1988-1994) to 32%. 
[Guideline] Rosendorff C, Lackland DT, Allison M, Aronow WS, et al. American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, et al. Treatment of hypertension in patients with coronary artery disease: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and American Society of Hypertension. Circulation. 2015 May 12. 131 (19):e435-70. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Hypertension is the most important modifiable risk factor for coronary heart disease (the leading cause of death in North America), stroke (the third leading cause), congestive heart failure, end-stage renal disease, and peripheral vascular disease. Therefore, health care professionals must not only identify and treat patients with hypertension but also promote a healthy lifestyle and preventive strategies to decrease the prevalence of hypertension in the general population. (See Treatment.)
Research shows that Western diet habits are a factor in development of metabolic syndrome, with high consumption of food that is not biochemically suited to humans. Weight gain is associated with metabolic syndrome. Rather than total adiposity, the core clinical component of the syndrome is visceral and/or ectopic fat (i.e., fat in organs not designed for fat storage) whereas the principal metabolic abnormality is insulin resistance. The continuous provision of energy via dietary carbohydrate, lipid, and protein fuels, unmatched by physical activity/energy demand creates a backlog of the products of mitochondrial oxidation, a process associated with progressive mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance.
Many expert groups recommend a slightly higher target of 150/90 mmHg for those over somewhere between 60 and 80 years of age. The JNC-8 and American College of Physicians recommend the target of 150/90 mmHg for those over 60 years of age, but some experts within these groups disagree with this recommendation. Some expert groups have also recommended slightly lower targets in those with diabetes or chronic kidney disease with protein loss in the urine, but others recommend the same target as for the general population. The issue of what is the best target and whether targets should differ for high risk individuals is unresolved, although some experts propose more intensive blood pressure lowering than advocated in some guidelines.
When there is excess glucose present in the blood, as with type 2 diabetes, the kidneys react by flushing it out of the blood and into the urine. This results in more urine production and the need to urinate more frequently, as well as an increased risk of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in men and women. People with type 2 diabetes are twice as likely to get a UTI as people without the disease, and the risk is higher in women than in men.
MRT should be a total-body routine that works all the major muscles each session. Since the metabolic cost of an exercise relates directly to the amount of muscle worked, incorporate multi-joint exercises whenever possible. Involve more muscle, and you expend more energy. Opt for compound movements: squats, rows and presses will work the muscles of the torso and thighs. Reserve single-joint movements for the arms and calves. Train three, non-consecutive days per week (i.e. Monday, Wednesday, Friday) to allow for adequate recuperation.
But why does someone get to this point? For the chronic dieter they arrive with metabolic damage because they hold tightly to the “Eat less, exercise more” mantras they were taught. When weight loss slows down, they eat less and push harder in their exercise routine, pushing metabolism into the ground. For the person with the unknown metabolism problem their road to metabolic damage is much more subtle. This person simply isn’t feeling well, starts putting on weight, and progresses all the way to metabolic damage because no doctor was able to identify what was going wrong.
Broyles, S., Katzmarzyk, P. T., Srinivasan, S. R., Chen, W., Bouchard, C., Freedman, D. S., & Berenson, G. S. (2010, May). The pediatric obesity epidemic continues unabated in Bogalusa, Louisiana. Pediatrics, 125(5). Retrieved from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/125/5/900?sso=1&sso_redirect_count=1&nfstatus=401&nftoken=00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000&nfstatusdescription=ERROR%3a+No+local+token
But why does someone get to this point? For the chronic dieter they arrive with metabolic damage because they hold tightly to the “Eat less, exercise more” mantras they were taught. When weight loss slows down, they eat less and push harder in their exercise routine, pushing metabolism into the ground. For the person with the unknown metabolism problem their road to metabolic damage is much more subtle. This person simply isn’t feeling well, starts putting on weight, and progresses all the way to metabolic damage because no doctor was able to identify what was going wrong. https://i.ytimg.com/vi/KjIf146TsFM/hqdefault.jpg?sqp
You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are age 45 or older, have a family history of diabetes, or are overweight. Physical inactivity, race, and certain health problems such as high blood pressure also affect your chance of developing type 2 diabetes. You are also more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you have prediabetes or had gestational diabetes when you were pregnant. Learn more about risk factors for type 2 diabetes. https://i.ytimg.com/vi/jBKtYULnoMc/hqdefault.jpg?sqp
Blood pressure is the measurement of the pressure or force of blood pushing against blood vessel walls. In hypertension (high blood pressure), the pressure against the blood vessel walls is consistently too high. High blood pressure is often called the “silent killer” because you may not be aware that anything is wrong, but the damage is occurring within your body.
^ Sacks, F. M.; Svetkey, L. P.; Vollmer, W. M.; Appel, L. J.; Bray, G. A.; Harsha, D.; Obarzanek, E.; Conlin, P. R.; Miller, E. R. (2001-01-04). "Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. DASH-Sodium Collaborative Research Group". The New England Journal of Medicine. 344 (1): 3–10. doi:10.1056/NEJM200101043440101. ISSN 0028-4793. PMID 11136953.
In animals, diabetes is most commonly encountered in dogs and cats. Middle-aged animals are most commonly affected. Female dogs are twice as likely to be affected as males, while according to some sources, male cats are also more prone than females. In both species, all breeds may be affected, but some small dog breeds are particularly likely to develop diabetes, such as Miniature Poodles.
With self-limiting exercises, fatigue stops you from completing a rep before your technique can break down. A perfect example would be sled pushing or dragging. It's virtually impossible to have technique break down with these exercises, especially in a trained athlete, and even under considerable loading. And, I can't say that I've ever seen anyone injured while using a sled.
The key sign of metabolic syndrome is central obesity, also known as visceral, male-pattern or apple-shaped adiposity. It is characterized by adipose tissue accumulation predominantly around the waist and trunk. Other signs of metabolic syndrome include high blood pressure, decreased fasting serum HDL cholesterol, elevated fasting serum triglyceride level, impaired fasting glucose, insulin resistance, or prediabetes. Associated conditions include hyperuricemia; fatty liver (especially in concurrent obesity) progressing to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; polycystic ovarian syndrome in women and erectile dysfunction in men; and acanthosis nigricans.
Cataracts and glaucoma are also more common among diabetics. It is also important to note that since the lens of the eye lets water through, if blood sugar concentrations vary a lot, the lens of the eye will shrink and swell with fluid accordingly. As a result, blurry vision is very common in poorly controlled diabetes. Patients are usually discouraged from getting a new eyeglass prescription until their blood sugar is controlled. This allows for a more accurate assessment of what kind of glasses prescription is required.