In a meta-analysis of pooled data from 19 prospective cohort studies involving 762,393 patients, Huang et al reported that, after adjustment for multiple cardiovascular risk factors, prehypertension was associated with a 66% increased risk for stroke, compared with an optimal blood pressure (< 120/80 mm Hg). [41, 42] Patients in the high range of prehypertension (130-139/85-89 mm Hg) had a 95% increased risk of stroke, compared with a 44% increased risk for those in the low range of prehypertension (120-129/80-84 mm Hg). [41, 42]
The metabolic syndrome quintuples the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Type 2 diabetes is considered a complication of metabolic syndrome. In people with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose, presence of metabolic syndrome doubles the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. It is likely that prediabetes and metabolic syndrome denote the same disorder, defining it by the different sets of biological markers.
Research shows that Western diet habits are a factor in development of metabolic syndrome, with high consumption of food that is not biochemically suited to humans. Weight gain is associated with metabolic syndrome. Rather than total adiposity, the core clinical component of the syndrome is visceral and/or ectopic fat (i.e., fat in organs not designed for fat storage) whereas the principal metabolic abnormality is insulin resistance. The continuous provision of energy via dietary carbohydrate, lipid, and protein fuels, unmatched by physical activity/energy demand creates a backlog of the products of mitochondrial oxidation, a process associated with progressive mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance.
Place a Swiss ball in front of you on the floor. Place forearms and fists on the top of it and keep your body in a straight line from your ankles to head. Keep core engaged, elbows bent at 90 degrees, and naturally arch lower back as you roll the ball forward. Make sure your body doesn't collapse as you perform this movement. Pause here, then using your abs, pull the ball back toward knees to starting position. https://i.ytimg.com/vi/WJ6HyT4rCbs/hqdefault.jpg?sqp
Hypertension results from a complex interaction of genes and environmental factors. Numerous common genetic variants with small effects on blood pressure have been identified as well as some rare genetic variants with large effects on blood pressure. Also, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 35 genetic loci related to blood pressure; 12 of these genetic loci influencing blood pressure were newly found. Sentinel SNP for each new genetic locus identified has shown an association with DNA methylation at multiple nearby CpG sites. These sentinel SNP are located within genes related to vascular smooth muscle and renal function. DNA methylation might affect in some way linking common genetic variation to multiple phenotypes even though mechanisms underlying these associations are not understood. Single variant test performed in this study for the 35 sentinel SNP (known and new) showed that genetic variants singly or in aggregate contribute to risk of clinical phenotypes related to high blood pressure.
Insulin is a fat storage hormone, it works to shuttle the sugar from your blood stream into your fat cells to store for later. Insulin has a number of other reproductive functions and has effects on skin health, cravings and the like. Insulin levels naturally increase after eating a meal that contains carbohydrates, dairy or protein. If you are insulin resistant then you can have an elevated level of insulin when you are fasting, or you can experience too much insulin release in response to those foods. This can trap your body in fat storage mode and inhibit fat loss.
Undiagnosed metabolic conditions are rampant in today’s society because medical providers are simply not testing for them. Most commonly medical providers are solely looking and testing for diseases they can treat with medications or surgery. This leaves a large hole in healthcare for those that are struggling with their weight and health, but do not need drugs or surgery. We call this the medical black hole. Ultimately, because of the medical black hole millions of americans are walking around every day with hidden metabolic disorders that are allowed to spread and worsen over time as metabolism in an interconnected web. One area affects all other areas.
Type 2 diabetes was also previously referred to as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), or adult-onset diabetes mellitus (AODM). In type 2 diabetes, patients can still produce insulin, but do so relatively inadequately for their body's needs, particularly in the face of insulin resistance as discussed above. In many cases this actually means the pancreas produces larger than normal quantities of insulin. A major feature of type 2 diabetes is a lack of sensitivity to insulin by the cells of the body (particularly fat and muscle cells).
^ Feinman, R. D; Pogozelski, W. K; Astrup, A; Bernstein, R. K; Fine, E. J; Westman, E. C; Accurso, A; Frassetto, L; Gower, B. A; McFarlane, S. I; Nielsen, J. V; Krarup, T; Saslow, L; Roth, K. S; Vernon, M. C; Volek, J. S; Wilshire, G. B; Dahlqvist, A; Sundberg, R; Childers, A; Morrison, K; Manninen, A. H; Dashti, H. M; Wood, R. J; Wortman, J; Worm, N (2015). "Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management: Critical review and evidence base". Nutrition. 31 (1): 1–13. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2014.06.011. PMID 25287761.
Though the above guidelines are important, they are not the only hypertension guidelines and currently there is no consensus on them. In 2014, experts appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8) proposed a different set of guidelines and blood pressure goals and some physician groups continue to endorse these recommendations. The table below summarizes the new goals or target blood pressure readings for specific populations:
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease, for which there is no known cure except in very specific situations. Management concentrates on keeping blood sugar levels as close to normal, without causing low blood sugar. This can usually be accomplished with a healthy diet, exercise, weight loss, and use of appropriate medications (insulin in the case of type 1 diabetes; oral medications, as well as possibly insulin, in type 2 diabetes).
Approximately half of individuals with hypertension have OSA, and approximately half with OSA have hypertension. Ambulatory BP monitoring normally reveals a "dip" in BP of at least 10% during sleep. However, if a patient is a "nondipper," the chances that the patient has OSA is increased. Nondipping is thought to be caused by frequent apneic/hypopneic episodes that end with arousals associated with marked spikes in BP that last for several seconds. Apneic episodes are associated with striking increases in sympathetic nerve activity and enormous elevations of BP. Individuals with sleep apnea have increased cardiovascular mortality, in part likely related to the high incidence of hypertension.
A 2018 study suggested that three types should be abandoned as too simplistic. It classified diabetes into five subgroups, with what is typically described as type 1 and autoimmune late-onset diabetes categorized as one group, whereas type 2 encompasses four categories. This is hoped to improve diabetes treatment by tailoring it more specifically to the subgroups.
Exogenous administration of the other steroids used for therapeutic purposes also increases blood pressure (BP), especially in susceptible individuals, mainly by volume expansion. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may also have adverse effects on BP. NSAIDs block both cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and COX-2 enzymes. The inhibition of COX-2 can inhibit its natriuretic effect, which, in turn, increases sodium retention. NSAIDs also inhibit the vasodilating effects of prostaglandins and the production of vasoconstricting factors—namely, endothelin-1. These effects can contribute to the induction of hypertension in a normotensive or controlled hypertensive patient.
The distribution of adipose tissue appears to affect its role in metabolic syndrome. Fat that is visceral or intra-abdominal correlates with inflammation, whereas subcutaneous fat does not. There are a number of potential explanations for this, including experimental observations that omental fat is more resistant to insulin and may result in a higher concentration of toxic free fatty acids in the portal circulation. 
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, more than 50% of people age 50 and older have high blood pressure. Women are about as likely as men to develop high blood pressure, though this varies somewhat by age. For people younger than age 45, more men than women are affected, while for those age 65 and older, more women than men are affected. Americans of African descent develop high blood pressure more often and at an earlier age than those of European and Hispanic descent.
Lipase inhibitors can play a role. These are foods that have action in decreasing the digestion of fats so they move out of the body instead of getting absorbed. Since the digestive tract is the major place where POPs are both removed from the body and taken into the body, doing what is possible to NOT allow fat soluble compounds reentry is important. Some common lipase inhibitors include green tea, oolong tea, mate tea, and ginger root. https://i.ytimg.com/vi/8AdXhRXuQLU/hqdefault.jpg?sqp
“Too often, doctors don’t set reasonable expectations,” says Lauren Harris-Pincus, RDN, of New York City. A blanket statement like "'Lose weight and go exercise' is not as motivating as 'If you lose a modest 5 percent of your body weight, you can make a significant impact on the important numbers like blood pressure, blood sugar, and cholesterol/triglycerides,'” Harris-Pincus says.
Hypertension is a common medical condition that often has severe consequences over the long-term. You generally would not know that you have hypertension unless you have your blood pressure checked. If you have mildly elevated levels, lifestyle adjustments may be enough to lower your blood pressure within ideal ranges. If you need medication, you may need to have some adjustments to get your dose just right, especially early on. Blood pressure management is generally effective, and most people are able to avoid the complications of hypertension with lifestyle modifications and medical management.
Insulin is vital to patients with type 1 diabetes - they cannot live without a source of exogenous insulin. Without insulin, patients with type 1 diabetes develop severely elevated blood sugar levels. This leads to increased urine glucose, which in turn leads to excessive loss of fluid and electrolytes in the urine. Lack of insulin also causes the inability to store fat and protein along with breakdown of existing fat and protein stores. This dysregulation, results in the process of ketosis and the release of ketones into the blood. Ketones turn the blood acidic, a condition called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Without prompt medical treatment, patients with diabetic ketoacidosis can rapidly go into shock, coma, and even death may result.