Diabetes was one of the first diseases described,[107] with an Egyptian manuscript from c. 1500 BCE mentioning "too great emptying of the urine".[108] The Ebers papyrus includes a recommendation for a drink to be taken in such cases.[109] The first described cases are believed to be of type 1 diabetes.[108] Indian physicians around the same time identified the disease and classified it as madhumeha or "honey urine", noting the urine would attract ants.[108][109] http://www.productiveresourcing.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/Nat-Squared-WE.jpg
Many of you at this point know my story, for the entirety of my life I had tried diet after diet. I was active, I ate well, yet no one would believe that because I was obese. Indeed, my poor mother dragged me from doctor to doctor trying to figure out what was going on with me. She was desperately trying to help me understand why nothing I did worked and why year after year I gained more and more weight and felt less at home in my body. I know that I am not alone in this as so many of you have reached out to tell me that they are struggling with weight loss. This phenomenon, that I have titled weight loss resistance, is a huge concern to me! This was part of the reason I became a Naturopathic Doctor. In the days when no one could help me shed the extra 80lbs of body fat I had, I had to do my own research, I had to blaze my own trail and now I am compelled to share that!
Forouzanfar MH, Alexander L, Anderson HR, et al, for the GBD 2013 Risk Factors Collaborators. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet. 2015 Dec 5. 386 (10010):2287-323. [Medline].
But why does someone get to this point?  For the chronic dieter they arrive with metabolic damage because they hold tightly to the “Eat less, exercise more” mantras they were taught.  When weight loss slows down, they eat less and push harder in their exercise routine, pushing metabolism into the ground.  For the person with the unknown metabolism problem their road to metabolic damage is much more subtle.  This person simply isn’t feeling well, starts putting on weight, and progresses all the way to metabolic damage because no doctor was able to identify what was going wrong. https://i.ytimg.com/vi/KjIf146TsFM/hqdefault.jpg?sqp
As of 2015, an estimated 415 million people had diabetes worldwide,[8] with type 2 DM making up about 90% of the cases.[16][17] This represents 8.3% of the adult population,[17] with equal rates in both women and men.[18] As of 2014, trends suggested the rate would continue to rise.[19] Diabetes at least doubles a person's risk of early death.[2] From 2012 to 2015, approximately 1.5 to 5.0 million deaths each year resulted from diabetes.[8][9] The global economic cost of diabetes in 2014 was estimated to be US$612 billion.[20] In the United States, diabetes cost $245 billion in 2012.[21]
Diabetes is a disease that occurs when your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Blood glucose is your main source of energy and comes from the food you eat. Insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas, helps glucose from food get into your cells to be used for energy. Sometimes your body doesn’t make enough—or any—insulin or doesn’t use insulin well. Glucose then stays in your blood and doesn’t reach your cells.
Your doctor may have handed you an info sheet on the foods you should be avoiding, but you might make more progress by adding certain foods to your diet. Focus on incorporating foods rich in soluble fiber, like oats and beans, into your meals. Insoluble fibers like whole grains can provide a "moving experience" by transporting foods through your gastrointestinal tract while keeping you feeling satisfied. Fill at least half your plate with veggies and fruits, and choose whole-grain carbs to make less room on your plate (and in your stomach) for less-beneficial choices.
Metabolic syndrome between pregnancies increases the risk of recurrent preeclampsia, according to a retrospective cohort study of 197 women who had preeclampsia during their first pregnancy. Of the 197 women, 40 (20%) had metabolic syndrome between pregnancies. Of these 40 women, 18 (45%) had preeclampsia during their second pregnancy, compared with 27 (17%) of the 157 women without metabolic syndrome between pregnancies. The risk of recurrent preeclampsia increased with the number of components of the metabolic syndrome present. [68, 69]
Dietary factors also influence the risk of developing type 2 DM. Consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks in excess is associated with an increased risk.[46][47] The type of fats in the diet is also important, with saturated fat and trans fats increasing the risk and polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat decreasing the risk.[45] Eating lots of white rice, and other starches, also may increase the risk of diabetes.[48] A lack of physical activity is believed to cause 7% of cases.[49]

Metabolic syndrome increases your risk for coronary heart disease. Other risk factors, besides metabolic syndrome, also increase your risk for heart disease. For example, a high LDL (“bad”) cholesterol level and smoking are major risk factors for heart disease. For details about all of the risk factors for heart disease, go to the Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors Health Topic.
How many calories should I eat a day? A calorie is an amount of energy that a particular food provides. Consuming more calories than needed will result in weight gain, consuming too few will result in weight loss. How many calories a person should eat each day depends on a variety of factors, such as age, size, sex, activity levels, and general health. Read now
Secondary hypertension can be caused by kidney disease; sleep apnea; coarctation of the aorta; disease of the blood vessels supplying the kidneys; various endocrine gland disorders; the use of oral contraceptives; smoking; alcohol intake of more than two drinks per day; chronic use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); and antidepressant use.

If your blood pressure is elevated, your doctor may request you have more readings over the course of a few days or weeks. A hypertension diagnosis is rarely given after just one reading. Your doctor needs to see evidence of a sustained problem. That’s because your environment can contribute to increased blood pressure, such as the stress you may feel by being at the doctor’s office. Also, blood pressure levels change throughout the day.
Measuring BP takes into account two pressures, measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). The first, systolic pressure, is the force exerted on the blood vessel walls when the heart is pumping blood. Diastolic pressure reflects the force present when the heart relaxes between beats. They are written as systolic over diastolic pressure. For instance, a blood pressure of 120/80 mm Hg or 120 over 80 corresponds to a systolic pressure of 120 and a diastolic pressure of 80.

The progression of nephropathy in patients can be significantly slowed by controlling high blood pressure, and by aggressively treating high blood sugar levels. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) used in treating high blood pressure may also benefit kidney disease in patients with diabetes.


This could be considered the "corollary" to #2.  Doing a set of 100 barbell snatches is absurd, as technique breaks down, and the amount of weight an athlete can use is almost too trivial to even call it metabolic RESISTANCE training.  Plus, it would likely take about 2-3 minutes to complete, which means that you're getting much more aerobic, even if an athlete is "working hard."  My feeling is that you use your work bouts to challenge anaerobic systems, and your recovery period to condition the aerobic energy system.  Let's be honest: most strength training enthusiasts care more about the aerobic system for recovery than actual aerobic exercise performance, anyway.
Normal blood pressure can differ substantially between breeds but hypertension in dogs is often diagnosed if systolic blood pressure is above 160 mm Hg particularly if this is associated with target organ damage.[170] Inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system and calcium channel blockers are often used to treat hypertension in dogs, although other drugs may be indicated for specific conditions causing high blood pressure.[170]

Pulse pressure (the difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure) is frequently increased in older people with hypertension. This can mean that systolic pressure is abnormally high, but diastolic pressure may be normal or low a condition termed isolated systolic hypertension.[59] The high pulse pressure in elderly people with hypertension or isolated systolic hypertension is explained by increased arterial stiffness, which typically accompanies aging and may be exacerbated by high blood pressure.[60]
Fruit juices and sugary beverages can make your blood sugar and triglyceride levels soar. Alcoholic beverages may cause hypoglycemia and an initial drop in blood sugar, but those numbers will then climb — especially if you’re consuming mixed cocktails. Water is the best beverage for healthy hydration. And it’s good to know that tea, coffee, skim or low-fat milk, and fruits and vegetables provide water without extra calories, too.
MRT should be a total-body routine that works all the major muscles each session. Since the metabolic cost of an exercise relates directly to the amount of muscle worked, incorporate multi-joint exercises whenever possible.[3] Involve more muscle, and you expend more energy. Opt for compound movements: squats, rows and presses will work the muscles of the torso and thighs. Reserve single-joint movements for the arms and calves. Train three, non-consecutive days per week (i.e. Monday, Wednesday, Friday) to allow for adequate recuperation.
The most current set of dietary guidelines for Americans encourages a diet that is plant-focused. Julie Upton, RD, of San Francisco, the cofounder of Appetite for Health, encourages a Mediterranean style of eating. The Mediterranean diet showcases fruits, veggies, whole grains, legumes, and seafood but has less meat, cheese, sugars, and sweets. Says Upton: “Not only is this plan helpful for your heart, but it also lowers risks for metabolic syndrome.”
Lifestyle changes and medications can lower blood pressure and decrease the risk of health complications.[8] Lifestyle changes include weight loss, physical exercise, decreased salt intake, reducing alcohol intake, and a healthy diet.[5] If lifestyle changes are not sufficient then blood pressure medications are used.[8] Up to three medications can control blood pressure in 90% of people.[5] The treatment of moderately high arterial blood pressure (defined as >160/100 mmHg) with medications is associated with an improved life expectancy.[14] The effect of treatment of blood pressure between 130/80 mmHg and 160/100 mmHg is less clear, with some reviews finding benefit[7][15][16] and others finding unclear benefit.[17][18][19] High blood pressure affects between 16 and 37% of the population globally.[5] In 2010 hypertension was believed to have been a factor in 18% of all deaths (9.4 million globally).[9]

In type 2 diabetes (adult onset diabetes), the pancreas makes insulin, but it either doesn't produce enough, or the insulin does not work properly. Nine out of 10 people with diabetes have type 2. This type occurs most often in people who are over 40 years old but can occur even in childhood if there are risk factors present. Type 2 diabetes may sometimes be controlled with a combination of diet, weight management and exercise. However, treatment also may include oral glucose-lowering medications (taken by mouth) or insulin injections (shots). https://i.ytimg.com/vi/LcWFI9Xawl8/maxresdefault.jpg


For an accurate diagnosis of hypertension to be made, it is essential for proper blood pressure measurement technique to be used.[76] Improper measurement of blood pressure is common and can change the blood pressure reading by up to 10 mmHg, which can lead to misdiagnosis and misclassification of hypertension.[76] Correct blood pressure measurement technique involves several steps. Proper blood pressure measurement requires the person whose blood pressure is being measured to sit quietly for at least five minutes which is then followed by application of a properly fitted blood pressure cuff to a bare upper arm.[76] The person should be seated with their back supported, feet flat on the floor, and with their legs uncrossed.[76] The person whose blood pressure is being measured should avoid talking or moving during this process.[76] The arm being measured should be supported on a flat surface at the level of the heart.[76] Blood pressure measurement should be done in a quiet room so the medical professional checking the blood pressure can hear the Korotkoff sounds while listening to the brachial artery with a stethoscope for accurate blood pressure measurements.[76][77] The blood pressure cuff should be deflated slowly (2-3 mmHg per second) while listening for the Korotkoff sounds.[77] The bladder should be emptied before a person's blood pressure is measured since this can increase blood pressure by up to 15/10 mmHg.[76] Multiple blood pressure readings (at least two) spaced 1–2 minutes apart should be obtained to ensure accuracy.[77] Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring over 12 to 24 hours is the most accurate method to confirm the diagnosis.[78]

If the amount of insulin available is insufficient, or if cells respond poorly to the effects of insulin (insulin insensitivity or insulin resistance), or if the insulin itself is defective, then glucose will not be absorbed properly by the body cells that require it, and it will not be stored appropriately in the liver and muscles. The net effect is persistently high levels of blood glucose, poor protein synthesis, and other metabolic derangements, such as acidosis.[60]


* The average person can expect to lose 1-2 lbs. per week. Results may vary. Weight loss is influenced by exercise, food consumed and diet.* FREE 1-3 Day Shipping on Orders Over $99 from Shop.Atkins.com. ©2017 Atkins Nutritionals, Inc.Disclaimer: Nothing contained on this Site is intended to provide health care advice. Should you have any health care-related questions, please call or see your physician or other health care provider. Consult your physician or health care provider before beginning the Atkins Diet as you would any other weight loss or weight maintenance program. The weight loss phases of the Atkins Diet should not be used by persons on dialysis. Individual results may vary. https://i.ytimg.com/vi/5bT3N5Rfq8c/3.jpg
The metabolic syndrome quintuples the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Type 2 diabetes is considered a complication of metabolic syndrome. In people with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose, presence of metabolic syndrome doubles the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.[28] It is likely that prediabetes and metabolic syndrome denote the same disorder, defining it by the different sets of biological markers.
MRT counteracts lactic acid's negative effects by improving your ability to buffer lactic acid and shuttle it out of muscle tissue. The upshot: a greater tolerance for high volumes of work, an important component for maximizing muscle growth. What does all this crazy crap mean? If you want to build muscle, consider using MRT for a brief mesocycle (2-6 weeks) before embarking on a longer, more traditional muscle-building routine.
But why does someone get to this point?  For the chronic dieter they arrive with metabolic damage because they hold tightly to the “Eat less, exercise more” mantras they were taught.  When weight loss slows down, they eat less and push harder in their exercise routine, pushing metabolism into the ground.  For the person with the unknown metabolism problem their road to metabolic damage is much more subtle.  This person simply isn’t feeling well, starts putting on weight, and progresses all the way to metabolic damage because no doctor was able to identify what was going wrong. https://i.ytimg.com/vi/KjIf146TsFM/hqdefault.jpg?sqp
This content is provided as a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), part of the National Institutes of Health. The NIDDK translates and disseminates research findings through its clearinghouses and education programs to increase knowledge and understanding about health and disease among patients, health professionals, and the public. Content produced by the NIDDK is carefully reviewed by NIDDK scientists and other experts.
* The average person can expect to lose 1-2 lbs. per week. Results may vary. Weight loss is influenced by exercise, food consumed and diet.* FREE 1-3 Day Shipping on Orders Over $99 from Shop.Atkins.com. ©2017 Atkins Nutritionals, Inc.Disclaimer: Nothing contained on this Site is intended to provide health care advice. Should you have any health care-related questions, please call or see your physician or other health care provider. Consult your physician or health care provider before beginning the Atkins Diet as you would any other weight loss or weight maintenance program. The weight loss phases of the Atkins Diet should not be used by persons on dialysis. Individual results may vary.
The pain of diabetic nerve damage may respond to traditional treatments with certain medications such as gabapentin (Neurontin), phenytoin (Dilantin), and carbamazepine (Tegretol) that are traditionally used in the treatment of seizure disorders. Amitriptyline (Elavil, Endep) and desipramine (Norpraminine) are medications that are traditionally used for depression. While many of these medications are not indicated specifically for the treatment of diabetes related nerve pain, they are used by physicians commonly.
To treat diabetic retinopathy, a laser is used to destroy and prevent the recurrence of the development of these small aneurysms and brittle blood vessels. Approximately 50% of patients with diabetes will develop some degree of diabetic retinopathy after 10 years of diabetes, and 80% retinopathy after 15 years of the disease. Poor control of blood sugar and blood pressure further aggravates eye disease in diabetes.
^ Nagele, Eva; Jeitler, Klaus; Horvath, Karl; Semlitsch, Thomas; Posch, Nicole; Herrmann, Kirsten H.; Grouven, Ulrich; Hermanns, Tatjana; Hemkens, Lars G.; Siebenhofer, Andrea (2014). "Clinical effectiveness of stress-reduction techniques in patients with hypertension". Journal of Hypertension. 32 (10): 1936–44. doi:10.1097/HJH.0000000000000298. ISSN 0263-6352. PMID 25084308.
Diabetes: The differences between types 1 and 2 There are fundamental differences between diabetes type 1 and type 2, including when they might occur, their causes, and how they affect someone's life. Find out here what distinguishes the different forms of the disease, the various symptoms, treatment methods, and how blood tests are interpreted. Read now
Glucagon is a hormone that causes the release of glucose from the liver (for example, it promotes gluconeogenesis). Glucagon can be lifesaving and every patient with diabetes who has a history of hypoglycemia (particularly those on insulin) should have a glucagon kit. Families and friends of those with diabetes need to be taught how to administer glucagon, since obviously the patients will not be able to do it themselves in an emergency situation. Another lifesaving device that should be mentioned is very simple; a medic-alert bracelet should be worn by all patients with diabetes.
Creatinine is a chemical waste molecule that is generated from muscle metabolism. Creatinine is produced from creatine, a molecule of major importance for energy production in muscles. Creatinine has been found to be a fairly reliable indicator of kidney function. As the kidneys become impaired the creatinine level in the blood will rise. Normal levels of creatinine in the blood vary from gender and age of the individual. https://s10721.pcdn.co/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/when-meditation-gets-hard.jpg
The fact that the diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome vary between ethnic populations is testimony to significant nuances in the manifestation of metabolic syndrome in these groups. The original metabolic syndrome criteria were derived in mostly Caucasian populations, and some have argued for modification of individual criteria for specific ethnic subgroups, as has been done with waist circumference for patients of Asian origin. [39]
Weight loss surgery in those with obesity and type two diabetes is often an effective measure.[14] Many are able to maintain normal blood sugar levels with little or no medications following surgery[95] and long-term mortality is decreased.[96] There is, however, a short-term mortality risk of less than 1% from the surgery.[97] The body mass index cutoffs for when surgery is appropriate are not yet clear.[96] It is recommended that this option be considered in those who are unable to get both their weight and blood sugar under control.[98]

Studies in type 1 patients have shown that in intensively treated patients, diabetic eye disease decreased by 76%, kidney disease decreased by 54%, and nerve disease decreased by 60%. More recently the EDIC trial has shown that type 1 diabetes is also associated with increased heart disease, similar to type 2 diabetes. However, the price for aggressive blood sugar control is a two to three fold increase in the incidence of abnormally low blood sugar levels (caused by the diabetes medications). For this reason, tight control of diabetes to achieve glucose levels between 70 to120 mg/dl is not recommended for children under 13 years of age, patients with severe recurrent hypoglycemia, patients unaware of their hypoglycemia, and patients with far advanced diabetes complications. To achieve optimal glucose control without an undue risk of abnormally lowering blood sugar levels, patients with type 1 diabetes must monitor their blood glucose at least four times a day and administer insulin at least three times per day. In patients with type 2 diabetes, aggressive blood sugar control has similar beneficial effects on the eyes, kidneys, nerves and blood vessels.
But why does someone get to this point?  For the chronic dieter they arrive with metabolic damage because they hold tightly to the “Eat less, exercise more” mantras they were taught.  When weight loss slows down, they eat less and push harder in their exercise routine, pushing metabolism into the ground.  For the person with the unknown metabolism problem their road to metabolic damage is much more subtle.  This person simply isn’t feeling well, starts putting on weight, and progresses all the way to metabolic damage because no doctor was able to identify what was going wrong. https://i.ytimg.com/vi/KjIf146TsFM/hqdefault.jpg?sqp
^ Qaseem A, Wilt TJ, Rich R, Humphrey LL, Frost J, Forciea MA (17 January 2017). "Pharmacologic Treatment of Hypertension in Adults Aged 60 Years or Older to Higher Versus Lower Blood Pressure Targets: A Clinical Practice Guideline From the American College of Physicians and the American Academy of Family Physicians". Annals of Internal Medicine. 166 (6): 430–437. doi:10.7326/M16-1785. PMID 28135725.
The ketogenic, or keto, diet calls for dramatically increasing your fat intake and consuming a moderate amount of protein and a very low amount of carbs, with the aim of kicking your body into a natural metabolic state called ketosis, in which it relies on burning fat rather than carbs for energy. Ketosis is different from diabetic ketoacidosis, a health emergency that occurs when insulin levels are low in conjunction with high levels of ketones. (37) Ketones are by-products of metabolism that are released in the blood when carb intake is low.
Enlarged heart. High blood pressure increases the amount of work for your heart. Like any heavily exercised muscle in your body, your heart grows bigger (enlarges) to handle the extra workload. The bigger your heart is, the more it demands oxygen-rich blood but the less able it is to maintain proper blood flow. As a result, you feel weak and tired and are not able to exercise or perform physical activities. Without treatment, your heart failure will only get worse. http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-du4BiwBwloo/UbfEdfaxaSI/AAAAAAAABa4/ikJjD8ruIkw/w1200-h630-p-k-no-nu/claire-kerslake-graphic-for-renew-promo-post-with-logo-final.jpg
In countries using a general practitioner system, such as the United Kingdom, care may take place mainly outside hospitals, with hospital-based specialist care used only in case of complications, difficult blood sugar control, or research projects. In other circumstances, general practitioners and specialists share care in a team approach. Home telehealth support can be an effective management technique.[100]
By the end of the book, you'll be able to create your own safe, effective, and efficient training program best suited to you. Or just choose from one of our 10 general or specialized HIT routines contained in the book. You'll develop the knowledge to change and make it a sustainable effort over time to keep you consistent. You'll be able to adapt to the ever changing dynamic situation that is a progressive training program.
Nope! Just as Time agreed, other research has shown that the low fat craze directly coincides with the increasing obesity epidemic. As you may have noticed above, fat is not on the list of insulin stimulating foods.. but sugar is! And sugar is just the thing that is added to low fat foods to make them taste better. So not only do you get a heightened insulin response to these low fat, low calorie foods leaving you in fat storing mode, but you are get an altered satiety response. That is right, fat is critical for the regulation of gut hormones and also the hormones that make you feel full after a meal and keep you feeling full between meals.
The goal of treating metabolic syndrome is to prevent the development of diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. Your doctor will first suggest lifestyle modifications such as exercising for 30 minutes most days of the week. One study showed that individuals who are physically active (30 minutes of activity at least once per week) have half the risk of developing metabolic syndrome than those who are inactive. Your doctor may also suggest eating a healthy diet to promote weight loss and normal blood cholesterol and fat levels. https://www.healthshare.com.au/storage/e2d6972eb9e9fe519fb8847f9afe0d6f.png.60x60_q85_box-0,0,446,446.png

The prognosis of diabetes is related to the extent to which the condition is kept under control to prevent the development of the complications described in the preceding sections. Some of the more serious complications of diabetes such as kidney failure and cardiovascular disease, can be life-threatening. Acute complications such as diabetic ketoacidosis can also be life-threatening. As mentioned above, aggressive control of blood sugar levels can prevent or delay the onset of complications, and many people with diabetes lead long and full lives.


Blood pressure was traditionally measured using a stethoscope and a blood pressure cuff (called a sphygmomanometer), a device that includes a cuff, a bulb, and a pressure dial that reads the pressure in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). This is still considered the best method but, more commonly, devices that combine a blood pressure cuff with electronic sensors are used to measure blood pressure. http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-du4BiwBwloo/UbfEdfaxaSI/AAAAAAAABa4/ikJjD8ruIkw/s1600/claire-kerslake-graphic-for-renew-promo-post-with-logo-final.jpg
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