Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic risk factors that come together in a single individual. These metabolic factors include insulin resistance, hypertension (high blood pressure), cholesterol abnormalities, and an increased risk for blood clotting. Affected individuals are most often overweight or obese. An association between certain metabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease has been known since the 1940s.
In addition, metabolic syndrome has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several other diseases, including obstructive sleep apnea. Breast cancer has also been linked to metabolic syndrome, possibly through dysregulation of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) cycle. [64] Additional studies have linked metabolic syndrome with cancers of the colon, gallbladder, kidney, and, possibly, prostate gland. [65] Evidence is emerging of an association with psoriasis. [66, 67]
^ Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Daniels SR, Donato KA, Eckel RH, Franklin BA, Gordon DJ, Krauss RM, Savage PJ, Smith SC, Spertus JA, Costa F (October 2005). "Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Scientific Statement". Circulation. 112 (17): 2735–52. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.169404. PMID 16157765.
Since cardiovascular disease is a serious complication associated with diabetes, some have recommended blood pressure levels below 130/80 mmHg.[89] However, evidence supports less than or equal to somewhere between 140/90 mmHg to 160/100 mmHg; the only additional benefit found for blood pressure targets beneath this range was an isolated decrease in stroke risk, and this was accompanied by an increased risk of other serious adverse events.[90][91] A 2016 review found potential harm to treating lower than 140 mmHg.[92] Among medications that lower blood pressure, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) improve outcomes in those with DM while the similar medications angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) do not.[93] Aspirin is also recommended for people with cardiovascular problems, however routine use of aspirin has not been found to improve outcomes in uncomplicated diabetes.[94]
Diabetes mellitus occurs throughout the world but is more common (especially type 2) in more developed countries. The greatest increase in rates has however been seen in low- and middle-income countries,[101] where more than 80% of diabetic deaths occur.[105] The fastest prevalence increase is expected to occur in Asia and Africa, where most people with diabetes will probably live in 2030.[106] The increase in rates in developing countries follows the trend of urbanization and lifestyle changes, including increasingly sedentary lifestyles, less physically demanding work and the global nutrition transition, marked by increased intake of foods that are high energy-dense but nutrient-poor (often high in sugar and saturated fats, sometimes referred to as the "Western-style" diet).[101][106] The global prevalence of diabetes might increase by 55% between 2013 and 2035.[101] https://www.pickthebrain.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/meditation.png
Insulin resistance. Insulin is a hormone that helps your body use glucose -- a simple sugar made from the food you eat -- as energy. In people with insulin resistance, the insulin doesn't work as well, so your body keeps making more and more of it to cope with the rising level of glucose. Eventually, this can lead to diabetes. Insulin resistance is closely connected to having excess weight in the belly.

“Individual responses to different diets–from low fat and vegan to low carb and paleo–vary enormously. “Some people on a diet program lose 60 lb. and keep it off for two years, and other people follow the same program religiously, and they gain 5 lb.,” says Frank Sacks, a leading weight-loss researcher and professor of cardiovascular disease prevention at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. “If we can figure out why, the potential to help people will be huge.”


During Induction you were consuming about 20 grams of carbs per day. The carbohydrate level was extremely low to demonstrate that it's possible for virtually everybody to experience lipolysis—from the person who can lose weight quite easily on almost any program to the hardest case, the person who, until doing Atkins, thought that losing weight was almost impossible.

Diabetes mellitus is classified into four broad categories: type 1, type 2, gestational diabetes, and "other specific types".[11] The "other specific types" are a collection of a few dozen individual causes.[11] Diabetes is a more variable disease than once thought and people may have combinations of forms.[37] The term "diabetes", without qualification, usually refers to diabetes mellitus.
* The average person can expect to lose 1-2 lbs. per week. Results may vary. Weight loss is influenced by exercise, food consumed and diet.* FREE 1-3 Day Shipping on Orders Over $99 from Shop.Atkins.com. ©2017 Atkins Nutritionals, Inc.Disclaimer: Nothing contained on this Site is intended to provide health care advice. Should you have any health care-related questions, please call or see your physician or other health care provider. Consult your physician or health care provider before beginning the Atkins Diet as you would any other weight loss or weight maintenance program. The weight loss phases of the Atkins Diet should not be used by persons on dialysis. Individual results may vary. https://i.ytimg.com/vi/5bT3N5Rfq8c/3.jpg
When the glucose concentration in the blood remains high over time, the kidneys will reach a threshold of reabsorption, and glucose will be excreted in the urine (glycosuria).[62] This increases the osmotic pressure of the urine and inhibits reabsorption of water by the kidney, resulting in increased urine production (polyuria) and increased fluid loss. Lost blood volume will be replaced osmotically from water held in body cells and other body compartments, causing dehydration and increased thirst (polydipsia).[60]

In the US, 84.1 million adults—more than 1 in 3—have prediabetes, and 90% of them don’t know they have it. Prediabetes is a serious health condition where blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough yet to be diagnosed as diabetes. Prediabetes increases your risk for type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. But through the CDC-led National Diabetes Prevention Program, you can learn practical, real-life changes that can cut your risk for developing type 2 diabetes by as much as 58% (71% if you’re 60 or older).


Type 2 diabetes, which is often diagnosed when a person has an A1C of at least 7 on two separate occasions, can lead to potentially serious issues, like neuropathy, or nerve damage; vision problems; an increased risk of heart disease; and other diabetes complications. A person’s A1C is the two- to three-month average of his or her blood sugar levels.

Metabolic syndrome is thought to be caused by adipose tissue dysfunction and insulin resistance. Dysfunctional adipose tissue also plays an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity-related insulin resistance. [18] Both adipose cell enlargement and infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissue result in the release of proinflammatory cytokines and promote insulin resistance. [19]

The 1989 "St. Vincent Declaration"[117][118] was the result of international efforts to improve the care accorded to those with diabetes. Doing so is important not only in terms of quality of life and life expectancy but also economically – expenses due to diabetes have been shown to be a major drain on health – and productivity-related resources for healthcare systems and governments.
[Guideline] Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Hypertension. 2018 Jun. 71(6):e13-e115. [Medline]. [Full Text].

^ O'Gara PT, Kushner FG, Ascheim DD, Casey DE, Chung MK, de Lemos JA, Ettinger SM, Fang JC, Fesmire FM, Franklin BA, Granger CB, Krumholz HM, Linderbaum JA, Morrow DA, Newby LK, Ornato JP, Ou N, Radford MJ, Tamis-Holland JE, Tommaso CL, Tracy CM, Woo YJ, Zhao DX, Anderson JL, Jacobs AK, Halperin JL, Albert NM, Brindis RG, Creager MA, DeMets D, Guyton RA, Hochman JS, Kovacs RJ, Kushner FG, Ohman EM, Stevenson WG, Yancy CW (January 2013). "2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines". Circulation. 127 (4): e362–425. doi:10.1161/CIR.0b013e3182742cf6. PMID 23247304.


Though not routinely used any longer, the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is a gold standard for making the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. It is still commonly used for diagnosing gestational diabetes and in conditions of pre-diabetes, such as polycystic ovary syndrome. With an oral glucose tolerance test, the person fasts overnight (at least eight but not more than 16 hours). Then first, the fasting plasma glucose is tested. After this test, the person receives an oral dose (75 grams) of glucose. There are several methods employed by obstetricians to do this test, but the one described here is standard. Usually, the glucose is in a sweet-tasting liquid that the person drinks. Blood samples are taken at specific intervals to measure the blood glucose.
People who have metabolic syndrome or are at risk for it may need to take medicine as treatment. This is especially true if diet and other lifestyle changes have not made a difference. Your doctor may prescribe medicine to help lower blood pressure, improve insulin metabolism, lower LDL cholesterol and raise HDL cholesterol, increase weight loss, or some combination of these.
This is true for two reasons. Not only are many fad diets low fat, but they are also low calorie. Your body is not stupid! It can see that you are not taking in enough energy to support your basal metabolic rate. Your basal metabolic rate is the number of calories that your body requires to run your heart, brain, liver, digestive system, lungs etc. This critical number is very responsive to the environment because back in the good old days food wasn’t widely available. If you weren’t able to find food for a few days then your whole system slowed down to require less calories and protect you from dying.
In addition, metabolic syndrome has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several other diseases, including obstructive sleep apnea. Breast cancer has also been linked to metabolic syndrome, possibly through dysregulation of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) cycle. [64] Additional studies have linked metabolic syndrome with cancers of the colon, gallbladder, kidney, and, possibly, prostate gland. [65] Evidence is emerging of an association with psoriasis. [66, 67]
But preventing the disease from progressing if you already have it requires first being able to spot the signs and symptoms of diabetes when they appear. While some type 2 diabetes symptoms may not ever show up, you can watch out for the following common signs of the disease and alert your doctor, especially if you have any of the common risk factors for diabetes. Also keep in mind that while most signs of type 2 diabetes are the same in men and women, there are some distinctions.

^ Sattar N, Preiss D, Murray HM, Welsh P, Buckley BM, de Craen AJ, Seshasai SR, McMurray JJ, Freeman DJ, Jukema JW, Macfarlane PW, Packard CJ, Stott DJ, Westendorp RG, Shepherd J, Davis BR, Pressel SL, Marchioli R, Marfisi RM, Maggioni AP, Tavazzi L, Tognoni G, Kjekshus J, Pedersen TR, Cook TJ, Gotto AM, Clearfield MB, Downs JR, Nakamura H, Ohashi Y, Mizuno K, Ray KK, Ford I (February 2010). "Statins and risk of incident diabetes: a collaborative meta-analysis of randomised statin trials". Lancet. 375 (9716): 735–42. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61965-6. PMID 20167359.
Research shows that Western diet habits are a factor in development of metabolic syndrome, with high consumption of food that is not biochemically suited to humans.[21] Weight gain is associated with metabolic syndrome. Rather than total adiposity, the core clinical component of the syndrome is visceral and/or ectopic fat (i.e., fat in organs not designed for fat storage) whereas the principal metabolic abnormality is insulin resistance.[22] The continuous provision of energy via dietary carbohydrate, lipid, and protein fuels, unmatched by physical activity/energy demand creates a backlog of the products of mitochondrial oxidation, a process associated with progressive mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance.
^ Feinman, R. D; Pogozelski, W. K; Astrup, A; Bernstein, R. K; Fine, E. J; Westman, E. C; Accurso, A; Frassetto, L; Gower, B. A; McFarlane, S. I; Nielsen, J. V; Krarup, T; Saslow, L; Roth, K. S; Vernon, M. C; Volek, J. S; Wilshire, G. B; Dahlqvist, A; Sundberg, R; Childers, A; Morrison, K; Manninen, A. H; Dashti, H. M; Wood, R. J; Wortman, J; Worm, N (2015). "Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management: Critical review and evidence base". Nutrition. 31 (1): 1–13. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2014.06.011. PMID 25287761.
Doctors, pharmacists, and other health-care professionals use abbreviations, acronyms, and other terminology for instructions and information in regard to a patient's health condition, prescription drugs they are to take, or medical procedures that have been ordered. There is no approved this list of common medical abbreviations, acronyms, and terminology used by doctors and other health- care professionals. You can use this list of medical abbreviations and acronyms written by our doctors the next time you can't understand what is on your prescription package, blood test results, or medical procedure orders. Examples include:
Diabetes mellitus occurs throughout the world but is more common (especially type 2) in more developed countries. The greatest increase in rates has however been seen in low- and middle-income countries,[101] where more than 80% of diabetic deaths occur.[105] The fastest prevalence increase is expected to occur in Asia and Africa, where most people with diabetes will probably live in 2030.[106] The increase in rates in developing countries follows the trend of urbanization and lifestyle changes, including increasingly sedentary lifestyles, less physically demanding work and the global nutrition transition, marked by increased intake of foods that are high energy-dense but nutrient-poor (often high in sugar and saturated fats, sometimes referred to as the "Western-style" diet).[101][106] The global prevalence of diabetes might increase by 55% between 2013 and 2035.[101] https://www.pickthebrain.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/meditation.png
How can I stabilize my blood pressure? A wide range of factors influences blood pressure, including anxiety, stress, and medications. High blood pressure can have severe complications, such as a heart attack or stroke. A person can address fluctuating blood pressure with home remedies and lifestyle changes. Learn more about normalizing blood pressure here. Read now
Undiagnosed metabolic conditions are rampant in today’s society because medical providers are simply not testing for them.  Most commonly medical providers are solely looking and testing for diseases they can treat with medications or surgery.  This leaves a large hole in healthcare for those that are struggling with their weight and health, but do not need drugs or surgery.  We call this the medical black hole.  Ultimately, because of the medical black hole millions of americans are walking around every day with hidden metabolic disorders that are allowed to spread and worsen over time as metabolism in an interconnected web.  One area affects all other areas.
An exception to this is those with very high blood pressure readings especially when there is poor organ function.[79] Initial assessment of the hypertensive people should include a complete history and physical examination. With the availability of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitors and home blood pressure machines, the importance of not wrongly diagnosing those who have white coat hypertension has led to a change in protocols. In the United Kingdom, current best practice is to follow up a single raised clinic reading with ambulatory measurement, or less ideally with home blood pressure monitoring over the course of 7 days.[79] The United States Preventive Services Task Force also recommends getting measurements outside of the healthcare environment.[80] Pseudohypertension in the elderly or noncompressibility artery syndrome may also require consideration. This condition is believed to be due to calcification of the arteries resulting in abnormally high blood pressure readings with a blood pressure cuff while intra arterial measurements of blood pressure are normal.[81] Orthostatic hypertension is when blood pressure increases upon standing.[82]
Usually, there are no immediate physical symptoms. Medical problems associated with the metabolic syndrome develop over time. If you are unsure if you have metabolic syndrome, see your healthcare provider. He or she will be able to make the diagnosis by obtaining the necessary tests, including blood pressure, lipid profile (triglycerides and HDL), and blood glucose.
Metabolic syndrome is a multiplex risk factor that arises from insulin resistance accompanying abnormal adipose deposition and function. [4] It is a risk factor for coronary heart disease, as well as diabetes, fatty liver, and several cancers. The clinical manifestations of this syndrome may include hypertension, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and abdominal obesity. (See Prognosis, Workup, Treatment, and Medication.)
With Type 2 diabetes, your body doesn’t use insulin well and is unable to keep blood sugar at normal levels. Most people with diabetes—9 in 10—have type 2 diabetes. It develops over many years and is usually diagnosed in adults (though increasingly in children, teens, and young adults). You may not notice any symptoms, so it’s important to get your blood sugar tested if you’re at risk. Type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed with healthy lifestyle changes, such as losing weight if you’re overweight, healthy eating, and getting regular physical activity.
(As a side note, one tricky thing we are coming to find with leptin is that many obese people have very high circulating levels of leptin but some how their body still doesn’t listen to the signal. They are leptin resistant. This means that your metabolism slows and your hunger gets jacked up… even though you have plenty of fat stores on your body! Talk about frustrating… but solvable!)
No special preparations are necessary to have your blood pressure checked. You might want to wear a short-sleeved shirt to your appointment so that the blood pressure cuff can fit around your arm properly. Avoid eating, drinking caffeinated beverages and smoking right before your test. Plan to use the toilet before having your blood pressure measured. https://www.clairekerslake.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Renew_Without-Tagline_Final_300.jpg
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