Type 1 diabetes occurs because the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas (beta cells) are damaged. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas makes little or no insulin, so sugar cannot get into the body's cells for use as energy. People with type 1 diabetes must use insulin injections to control their blood glucose. Type 1 is the most common form of diabetes in people who are under age 30, but it can occur at any age. Ten percent of people with diabetes are diagnosed with type 1.
When you have diabetes, it’s important to avoid eating many packaged, processed snacks such as cookies, chips, cake, granola bars, and the like, in lieu of fresh, whole foods, like fiber-rich fruits, veggies, and whole grains. (27) Eating foods high in fiber can help keep blood sugar levels steady and fill you up, potentially promoting weight loss and improving insulin sensitivity. (28) https://i.vimeocdn.com/portrait/4282345_120x120.jpg
When you have diabetes, it’s important to avoid eating many packaged, processed snacks such as cookies, chips, cake, granola bars, and the like, in lieu of fresh, whole foods, like fiber-rich fruits, veggies, and whole grains. (27) Eating foods high in fiber can help keep blood sugar levels steady and fill you up, potentially promoting weight loss and improving insulin sensitivity. (28) https://i.vimeocdn.com/portrait/4282345_120x120.jpg

Triglycerides are a common form of fat that we digest. Triglycerides are the main ingredient in animal fats and vegetable oils. Elevated levels of triglycerides are a risk factor for heart disease, heart attack, stroke, fatty liver disease, and pancreatitis. Elevated levels of triglycerides are also associated with diseases like diabetes, kidney disease, and medications (for example, diuretics, birth control pills, and beta blockers). Dietary changes, and medication if necessary can help lower triglyceride blood levels.
^ Jump up to: a b Burt VL, Cutler JA, Higgins M, et al. (July 1995). "Trends in the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in the adult US population. Data from the health examination surveys, 1960 to 1991". Hypertension. 26 (1): 60–69. doi:10.1161/01.HYP.26.1.60. PMID 7607734. Archived from the original on 2012-12-20. Retrieved 5 June 2009.
Because some medications, such as over-the-counter cold medicines, pain medications, antidepressants, birth control pills and others, can raise your blood pressure, it might be a good idea to bring a list of medications and supplements you take to your doctor's appointment. Don't stop taking any prescription medications that you think may affect your blood pressure without your doctor's advice.
The 1989 "St. Vincent Declaration"[117][118] was the result of international efforts to improve the care accorded to those with diabetes. Doing so is important not only in terms of quality of life and life expectancy but also economically – expenses due to diabetes have been shown to be a major drain on health – and productivity-related resources for healthcare systems and governments.
Much of the disease burden of high blood pressure is experienced by people who are not labeled as hypertensive.[87] Consequently, population strategies are required to reduce the consequences of high blood pressure and reduce the need for antihypertensive medications. Lifestyle changes are recommended to lower blood pressure, before starting medications. The 2004 British Hypertension Society guidelines[87] proposed lifestyle changes consistent with those outlined by the US National High BP Education Program in 2002[95] for the primary prevention of hypertension:
Creatinine is a chemical waste molecule that is generated from muscle metabolism. Creatinine is produced from creatine, a molecule of major importance for energy production in muscles. Creatinine has been found to be a fairly reliable indicator of kidney function. As the kidneys become impaired the creatinine level in the blood will rise. Normal levels of creatinine in the blood vary from gender and age of the individual. http://www.sandysidhumedia.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/cindygallopquote-426x300.jpg

American Diabetes Association Joslin Diabetes Center Mayo Clinic International Diabetes Federation Canadian Diabetes Association National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Diabetes Daily American Heart Association Diabetes Forecast Diabetic Living American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists European Association for the Study of Diabetes

If your blood pressure is elevated, your doctor may request you have more readings over the course of a few days or weeks. A hypertension diagnosis is rarely given after just one reading. Your doctor needs to see evidence of a sustained problem. That’s because your environment can contribute to increased blood pressure, such as the stress you may feel by being at the doctor’s office. Also, blood pressure levels change throughout the day.
In the United States, children are becoming obese at triple the rate compared with the 1960s, making the study and treatment of this problem paramount. The epidemic of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents is an international phenomenon, leading the International Diabetes Foundation to publish an updated consensus statement to guide diagnosis and further study of the condition. [51, 52]
Type 2 diabetes: Type 2 diabetes affects the way the body uses insulin. While the body still makes insulin, unlike in type I, the cells in the body do not respond to it as effectively as they once did. This is the most common type of diabetes, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, and it has strong links with obesity.
Have you ever eaten a salad with low fat dressing, hold the nuts with a swap for lean protein? Did you leave feeling hungry, unsatisfied and searching for something else to fill you up? When this happens and you end up snacking throughout the day you never have the opportunity to burn fat as fuel because your metabolic hormones are increased and you never enter the fasting stage. No Bueno!

Grab the bar with a shoulder-width, underhand grip, and hang at arm's length. You should return to this position each time you lower your body back down. Perform a chin-up by taking 1 second to pull your collarbone to the bar. As you pull your body up, stick your chest out, squeeze your shoulder blades down and back, and focus on pulling your upper arms down forcefully. Once the top of your chest touches the bar, pause, then take 3 seconds to lower your body back to a dead hang. That's 1 rep.


“When you eat sugary foods, your blood sugar levels rise and your pancreas releases insulin to move the sugar from your blood into your cells to be used or stored,” explains Chere Bork, RDN, a nutritionist and life coach in the Minneapolis–St. Paul area. But if your body is continuously exposed to high levels of insulin, Bork says, “the receptor cells become inefficient and resistant to the effects of insulin,” and this leaves blood glucose levels elevated. It is insulin resistance that promotes the high cholesterol, high glucose, and high blood pressure of metabolic syndrome — also known as insulin resistance syndrome.

^ O'Gara PT, Kushner FG, Ascheim DD, Casey DE, Chung MK, de Lemos JA, Ettinger SM, Fang JC, Fesmire FM, Franklin BA, Granger CB, Krumholz HM, Linderbaum JA, Morrow DA, Newby LK, Ornato JP, Ou N, Radford MJ, Tamis-Holland JE, Tommaso CL, Tracy CM, Woo YJ, Zhao DX, Anderson JL, Jacobs AK, Halperin JL, Albert NM, Brindis RG, Creager MA, DeMets D, Guyton RA, Hochman JS, Kovacs RJ, Kushner FG, Ohman EM, Stevenson WG, Yancy CW (January 2013). "2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines". Circulation. 127 (4): e362–425. doi:10.1161/CIR.0b013e3182742cf6. PMID 23247304.
What is a normal blood pressure? Blood pressure is essential to life because it forces the blood around the body, delivering all the nutrients it needs. Here, we explain how to take your blood pressure, what the readings mean, and what counts as low, high, and normal. The article also offers some tips on how to maintain healthy blood pressure. Read now
Cycle the diet in a way that has periods of reduced energy intake and periods of increased energy intake. This helps offset the leptin decline that occurs with dieting. There is individual variation with this, but for those who respond well, a day or a few days of overeating can set the metabolic rate back to a higher level. This cycling approach may be more effective for fat loss than the traditional approach

Hypertension is the most important modifiable risk factor for coronary heart disease (the leading cause of death in North America), stroke (the third leading cause), congestive heart failure, end-stage renal disease, and peripheral vascular disease. Therefore, health care professionals must not only identify and treat patients with hypertension but also promote a healthy lifestyle and preventive strategies to decrease the prevalence of hypertension in the general population. (See Treatment.)
If your blood pressure is elevated, your doctor may request you have more readings over the course of a few days or weeks. A hypertension diagnosis is rarely given after just one reading. Your doctor needs to see evidence of a sustained problem. That’s because your environment can contribute to increased blood pressure, such as the stress you may feel by being at the doctor’s office. Also, blood pressure levels change throughout the day.

Insulin is a fat storage hormone, it works to shuttle the sugar from your blood stream into your fat cells to store for later. Insulin has a number of other reproductive functions and has effects on skin health, cravings and the like. Insulin levels naturally increase after eating a meal that contains carbohydrates, dairy or protein. If you are insulin resistant then you can have an elevated level of insulin when you are fasting, or you can experience too much insulin release in response to those foods. This can trap your body in fat storage mode and inhibit fat loss.
Researchers assigned overweight subjects to three groups: diet-only, diet plus aerobics, diet plus aerobics plus weights. The diet group lost 14.6 pounds of fat in 12 weeks. The aerobic group lost only one more pound than the diet group. Their training was three times a week starting at 30 minutes and progressing to 50 minutes over the 12 weeks. Nothing special. But the weight training group lost over 21 pounds of fat. That's 44% and 35% more than diet and cardio-only groups respectively. The addition of aerobic training didn't result in significant fat loss over dieting alone. Thirty-six sessions of up to 50 minutes is a lot of work for one additional pound of fat loss. But the addition of resistance training greatly accelerated fat loss results.
No special preparations are necessary to have your blood pressure checked. You might want to wear a short-sleeved shirt to your appointment so that the blood pressure cuff can fit around your arm properly. Avoid eating, drinking caffeinated beverages and smoking right before your test. Plan to use the toilet before having your blood pressure measured. https://www.clairekerslake.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Renew_Without-Tagline_Final_300.jpg
Eating mindfully. A child who learns to see food as fuel and not emotional compensation can start to make better choices at mealtime — for example, selecting complex carbs instead of simple carbs (whole-grain instead of white bread, brown rice instead of white); getting more fiber with beans, fruits, and vegetables; choosing "healthy" fats like olive oil and nuts; and avoiding too many empty calories from soda and sweets.
Tips for Success: Read your labels. Watch out for hidden carbs; to calculate the grams of carbs that impact your blood sugar, subtract the number of grams of dietary fiber from the total number of carb grams. Also double-check serving sizes on labels; some foods and drinks are actually two or more servings, so you need to add in those extra carbs and calories.
In the United States, metabolic syndrome has a high prevalence in African Americans, particularly African American women, and this has been attributed to the higher prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes in this population. [40] However, the highest age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the United States is found in Mexican Americans, approximately 31.9% of whom had the condition (compared with 27% of the general population) in a 1988-1994 survey. [41]
Secondary hypertension results from an identifiable cause. Kidney disease is the most common secondary cause of hypertension.[23] Hypertension can also be caused by endocrine conditions, such as Cushing's syndrome, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, acromegaly, Conn's syndrome or hyperaldosteronism, renal artery stenosis (from atherosclerosis or fibromuscular dysplasia), hyperparathyroidism, and pheochromocytoma.[23][47] Other causes of secondary hypertension include obesity, sleep apnea, pregnancy, coarctation of the aorta, excessive eating of liquorice, excessive drinking of alcohol, and certain prescription medicines, herbal remedies, and illegal drugs such as cocaine and methamphetamine.[23][48] Arsenic exposure through drinking water has been shown to correlate with elevated blood pressure.[49][50]
Fasting glucose test This test involves giving a blood sample after you have fasted for eight hours. (18) If you have a fasting blood sugar level of less than 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl), your blood sugar levels are normal. But if you have one from 100 to 125 mg/dl, you have prediabetes, and if you have 126 mg/dl on two separate occasions, you have diabetes. (17)
^ Vancampfort D, Correll CU, Wampers M, Sienaert P, Mitchell AJ, De Herdt A, Probst M, Scheewe TW, De Hert M (July 2014). "Metabolic syndrome and metabolic abnormalities in patients with major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis of prevalences and moderating variables". Psychological Medicine. 44 (10): 2017–28. doi:10.1017/S0033291713002778. PMID 24262678.

A superset is two exercises performed in succession without rest. One of the best metabolic supersets involves training agonist/antagonist muscle groups (i.e. back/chest, biceps/triceps, quads/hamstrings, etc). This technique, commonly known as paired-set training, has been shown to increase EPOC and result in greater total energy expenditure when compared to traditional strength training protocols.[7]
^ Roerecke, Michael; Tobe, Sheldon W.; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Bacon, Simon L.; Vafaei, Afshin; Hasan, Omer S. M.; Krishnan, Rohin J.; Raifu, Amidu O.; Rehm, Jürgen (27 June 2018). "Sex‐Specific Associations Between Alcohol Consumption and Incidence of Hypertension: A Systematic Review and Meta‐Analysis of Cohort Studies". Journal of the American Heart Association. 7 (13): e008202. doi:10.1161/JAHA.117.008202.
If lifestyle modifications are insufficient to achieve the goal BP, there are several drug options for treating and managing hypertension. Thiazide diuretics, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) /angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), or calcium channel blocker (CCB) are the preferred agents in nonblack populations, whereas CCBs or thiazide diuretics are favored in black hypertensive populations. [8] These recommendations do not exclude the use of ACE inhibitors or ARBs in treatment of black patients, or CCBs or diuretics in non-black persons. Often, patients require several antihypertensive agents to achieve adequate BP control.

One of the most common ways people with type 2 diabetes attempt to lower their blood sugar is by drastically reducing their intake of carbs. The ADA agrees that carbohydrate counting is essential if you have diabetes, but extreme diets like the ketogenic diet, which reduces carb intake to as little as 5 percent of your daily calories, can be risky for some people with diabetes. (36)

Type 2 diabetes, a form of diabetes mellitus, is likely one of the better-known chronic diseases in the world — and that's no surprise. Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention suggest in the United States alone, 30.3 million people, or 9.4 percent of the U.S. population, has diabetes, and the majority of these people have type 2. (1)
The body obtains glucose from three main sources: the intestinal absorption of food; the breakdown of glycogen (glycogenolysis), the storage form of glucose found in the liver; and gluconeogenesis, the generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate substrates in the body.[60] Insulin plays a critical role in balancing glucose levels in the body. Insulin can inhibit the breakdown of glycogen or the process of gluconeogenesis, it can stimulate the transport of glucose into fat and muscle cells, and it can stimulate the storage of glucose in the form of glycogen.[60]

Various expert groups have produced guidelines regarding how low the blood pressure target should be when a person is treated for hypertension. These groups recommend a target below the range 140–160 / 90–100 mmHg for the general population.[13][99][100][101][102] Cochrane reviews recommend similar targets for subgroups such as people with diabetes[103] and people with prior cardiovascular disease.[104]
The classic oral glucose tolerance test measures blood glucose levels five times over a period of three hours. Some physicians simply get a baseline blood sample followed by a sample two hours after drinking the glucose solution. In a person without diabetes, the glucose levels rise and then fall quickly. In someone with diabetes, glucose levels rise higher than normal and fail to come back down as fast.

The goal of treating metabolic syndrome is to prevent the development of diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. Your doctor will first suggest lifestyle modifications such as exercising for 30 minutes most days of the week. One study showed that individuals who are physically active (30 minutes of activity at least once per week) have half the risk of developing metabolic syndrome than those who are inactive. Your doctor may also suggest eating a healthy diet to promote weight loss and normal blood cholesterol and fat levels.
Lifestyle changes and medications can lower blood pressure and decrease the risk of health complications.[8] Lifestyle changes include weight loss, physical exercise, decreased salt intake, reducing alcohol intake, and a healthy diet.[5] If lifestyle changes are not sufficient then blood pressure medications are used.[8] Up to three medications can control blood pressure in 90% of people.[5] The treatment of moderately high arterial blood pressure (defined as >160/100 mmHg) with medications is associated with an improved life expectancy.[14] The effect of treatment of blood pressure between 130/80 mmHg and 160/100 mmHg is less clear, with some reviews finding benefit[7][15][16] and others finding unclear benefit.[17][18][19] High blood pressure affects between 16 and 37% of the population globally.[5] In 2010 hypertension was believed to have been a factor in 18% of all deaths (9.4 million globally).[9]
Let’s be real. Metabolic Resistance Training is numero uno for a reason; it’s a nearly perfect method for losing fat. If you’re looking for something more in-depth, Jen Sinkler’s Lift Weights Faster 2 has over 180 metabolic workouts. ONE HUNDRED EIGHTY of them! You’ve got workouts for the next year, and that’s if you train every other day and don’t repeat any.
A 2018 study suggested that three types should be abandoned as too simplistic.[57] It classified diabetes into five subgroups, with what is typically described as type 1 and autoimmune late-onset diabetes categorized as one group, whereas type 2 encompasses four categories. This is hoped to improve diabetes treatment by tailoring it more specifically to the subgroups.[58]
Glucagon is a hormone that causes the release of glucose from the liver (for example, it promotes gluconeogenesis). Glucagon can be lifesaving and every patient with diabetes who has a history of hypoglycemia (particularly those on insulin) should have a glucagon kit. Families and friends of those with diabetes need to be taught how to administer glucagon, since obviously the patients will not be able to do it themselves in an emergency situation. Another lifesaving device that should be mentioned is very simple; a medic-alert bracelet should be worn by all patients with diabetes.
The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), or glucose tolerance test is a blood test used (not routinely however) to diagnose diabetes, and gestational diabetes. Information in regard to reliability of the oral glucose tolerance test is important, as some conditions (common cold), or food (caffeine), or lifestyle habits (smoking) may alter the results of the oral glucose tolerance test.
Cataracts and glaucoma are also more common among diabetics. It is also important to note that since the lens of the eye lets water through, if blood sugar concentrations vary a lot, the lens of the eye will shrink and swell with fluid accordingly. As a result, blurry vision is very common in poorly controlled diabetes. Patients are usually discouraged from getting a new eyeglass prescription until their blood sugar is controlled. This allows for a more accurate assessment of what kind of glasses prescription is required.

The good news is that with changes to diet and exercise, you can prevent, control, or even reverse metabolic syndrome. If you don’t, you could develop significant health risks related to the diabetes, heart disease, and stroke as part of the condition. Your risk for metabolic syndrome increases with age, so it’s important to start adjusting your health habits early on.


Renovascular hypertension (RVHT) causes 0.2-4% of cases. Since the seminal experiment in 1934 by Goldblatt et al, [28] RVHT has become increasingly recognized as an important cause of clinically atypical hypertension and chronic kidney disease—the latter by virtue of renal ischemia. The coexistence of renal arterial vascular (ie, renovascular) disease and hypertension roughly defines this type of nonessential hypertension. More specific diagnoses are made retrospectively when hypertension is improved after intravascular intervention.
^ Nagele, Eva; Jeitler, Klaus; Horvath, Karl; Semlitsch, Thomas; Posch, Nicole; Herrmann, Kirsten H.; Grouven, Ulrich; Hermanns, Tatjana; Hemkens, Lars G.; Siebenhofer, Andrea (2014). "Clinical effectiveness of stress-reduction techniques in patients with hypertension". Journal of Hypertension. 32 (10): 1936–44. doi:10.1097/HJH.0000000000000298. ISSN 0263-6352. PMID 25084308.
Approximately half of individuals with hypertension have OSA, and approximately half with OSA have hypertension. Ambulatory BP monitoring normally reveals a "dip" in BP of at least 10% during sleep. However, if a patient is a "nondipper," the chances that the patient has OSA is increased. Nondipping is thought to be caused by frequent apneic/hypopneic episodes that end with arousals associated with marked spikes in BP that last for several seconds. Apneic episodes are associated with striking increases in sympathetic nerve activity and enormous elevations of BP. Individuals with sleep apnea have increased cardiovascular mortality, in part likely related to the high incidence of hypertension.
What is a normal blood pressure? Blood pressure is essential to life because it forces the blood around the body, delivering all the nutrients it needs. Here, we explain how to take your blood pressure, what the readings mean, and what counts as low, high, and normal. The article also offers some tips on how to maintain healthy blood pressure. Read now
^ Sacks, F. M.; Svetkey, L. P.; Vollmer, W. M.; Appel, L. J.; Bray, G. A.; Harsha, D.; Obarzanek, E.; Conlin, P. R.; Miller, E. R. (2001-01-04). "Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. DASH-Sodium Collaborative Research Group". The New England Journal of Medicine. 344 (1): 3–10. doi:10.1056/NEJM200101043440101. ISSN 0028-4793. PMID 11136953.
Secondary hypertension can be caused by kidney disease; sleep apnea; coarctation of the aorta; disease of the blood vessels supplying the kidneys; various endocrine gland disorders; the use of oral contraceptives; smoking; alcohol intake of more than two drinks per day; chronic use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); and antidepressant use.
The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), or glucose tolerance test is a blood test used (not routinely however) to diagnose diabetes, and gestational diabetes. Information in regard to reliability of the oral glucose tolerance test is important, as some conditions (common cold), or food (caffeine), or lifestyle habits (smoking) may alter the results of the oral glucose tolerance test.
Various strategies have been proposed to prevent the development of metabolic syndrome. These include increased physical activity (such as walking 30 minutes every day),[48] and a healthy, reduced calorie diet.[49] Many studies support the value of a healthy lifestyle as above. However, one study stated these potentially beneficial measures are effective in only a minority of people, primarily due to a lack of compliance with lifestyle and diet changes.[12] The International Obesity Taskforce states that interventions on a sociopolitical level are required to reduce development of the metabolic syndrome in populations.[50]
Development of metabolic syndrome depends on distribution as well as amount of fat. Excess fat in the abdomen (called apple shape), particularly when it results in a high waist-to-hip ratio (reflecting a relatively low muscle-to-fat mass ratio), increases risk. The syndrome is less common among people who have excess subcutaneous fat around the hips (called pear shape) and a low waist-to-hip ratio (reflecting a higher muscle-to-fat mass ratio). https://www.healthshare.com.au/storage/avatars/patricia-durning.jpg.60x60_q85_box-0,0,100,100.jpg
Kidney damage from diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy. The onset of kidney disease and its progression is extremely variable. Initially, diseased small blood vessels in the kidneys cause the leakage of protein in the urine. Later on, the kidneys lose their ability to cleanse and filter blood. The accumulation of toxic waste products in the blood leads to the need for dialysis. Dialysis involves using a machine that serves the function of the kidney by filtering and cleaning the blood. In patients who do not want to undergo chronic dialysis, kidney transplantation can be considered. https://www.lorilynnsmith.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/2012-04-30_2116.png
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